draft-ietf-quic-http-05.txt   draft-ietf-quic-http-latest.txt 
QUIC Working Group M. Bishop, Ed. QUIC Working Group M. Bishop, Ed.
Internet-Draft Microsoft Internet-Draft Microsoft
Intended status: Standards Track August 15, 2017 Intended status: Standards Track September 22, 2017
Expires: February 16, 2018 Expires: March 26, 2018
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) over QUIC Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) over QUIC
draft-ietf-quic-http-05 draft-ietf-quic-http-latest
Abstract Abstract
The QUIC transport protocol has several features that are desirable The QUIC transport protocol has several features that are desirable
in a transport for HTTP, such as stream multiplexing, per-stream flow in a transport for HTTP, such as stream multiplexing, per-stream flow
control, and low-latency connection establishment. This document control, and low-latency connection establishment. This document
describes a mapping of HTTP semantics over QUIC. This document also describes a mapping of HTTP semantics over QUIC. This document also
identifies HTTP/2 features that are subsumed by QUIC, and describes identifies HTTP/2 features that are subsumed by QUIC, and describes
how HTTP/2 extensions can be ported to QUIC. how HTTP/2 extensions can be ported to QUIC.
skipping to change at page 1, line 38 skipping to change at page 1, line 38
https://github.com/quicwg/base-drafts/labels/http [3]. https://github.com/quicwg/base-drafts/labels/http [3].
Status of This Memo Status of This Memo
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provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.
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Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
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This Internet-Draft will expire on February 16, 2018. This Internet-Draft will expire on March 26, 2018.
Copyright Notice Copyright Notice
Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
document authors. All rights reserved. document authors. All rights reserved.
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described in the Simplified BSD License. described in the Simplified BSD License.
Table of Contents Table of Contents
1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.1. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1. Notational Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2. QUIC Advertisement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. QUIC Advertisement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1. QUIC Version Hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1. QUIC Version Hints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
3. Connection Establishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3. Connection Establishment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
3.1. Draft Version Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. Draft Version Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4. Stream Mapping and Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 4. Stream Mapping and Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.1. Stream 1: Control Stream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.1. Stream 1: Control Stream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.2. HTTP Message Exchanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 4.2. HTTP Message Exchanges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
4.2.1. Header Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 4.2.1. Header Compression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
4.2.2. The CONNECT Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.2.2. The CONNECT Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
4.3. Request Prioritization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.3. Request Prioritization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
4.4. Server Push . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 4.4. Server Push . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
5. HTTP Framing Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5. HTTP Framing Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
5.1. Frame Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 5.1. Frame Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.2. Frame Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.2. Frame Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.2.1. DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.2.1. DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.2.2. HEADERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.2.2. HEADERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.2.3. PRIORITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5.2.3. PRIORITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
5.2.4. CANCEL_PUSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5.2.4. CANCEL_PUSH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
5.2.5. SETTINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 5.2.5. SETTINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5.2.6. PUSH_PROMISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 5.2.6. PUSH_PROMISE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5.2.7. GOAWAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 5.2.7. GOAWAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
6. Error Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 5.2.8. MAX_PUSH_ID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
6.1. HTTP-Defined QUIC Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 6. Connection Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
7. Considerations for Transitioning from HTTP/2 . . . . . . . . 21 7. Error Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
7.1. HTTP Frame Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 7.1. HTTP-Defined QUIC Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
7.2. HTTP/2 SETTINGS Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 8. Considerations for Transitioning from HTTP/2 . . . . . . . . 22
7.3. HTTP/2 Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 8.1. HTTP Frame Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 8.2. HTTP/2 SETTINGS Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 8.3. HTTP/2 Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
9.1. Registration of HTTP/QUIC Identification String . . . . . 25
9.2. Registration of QUIC Version Hint Alt-Svc Parameter . . . 25 9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
9.3. Frame Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
9.4. Settings Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 10.1. Registration of HTTP/QUIC Identification String . . . . 26
9.5. Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 10.2. Registration of QUIC Version Hint Alt-Svc Parameter . . 27
10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 10.3. Frame Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 10.4. Settings Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 10.5. Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
10.3. URIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Appendix A. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Appendix B. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
B.1. Since draft-ietf-quic-http-04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 11.3. URIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
B.2. Since draft-ietf-quic-http-03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Appendix A. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
B.3. Since draft-ietf-quic-http-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Appendix B. Change Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
B.4. Since draft-ietf-quic-http-01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 B.1. Since draft-ietf-quic-http-05 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
B.5. Since draft-ietf-quic-http-00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 B.2. Since draft-ietf-quic-http-04 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
B.6. Since draft-shade-quic-http2-mapping-00 . . . . . . . . . 33 B.3. Since draft-ietf-quic-http-03 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 B.4. Since draft-ietf-quic-http-02 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
B.5. Since draft-ietf-quic-http-01 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
B.6. Since draft-ietf-quic-http-00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
B.7. Since draft-shade-quic-http2-mapping-00 . . . . . . . . . 34
Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
1. Introduction 1. Introduction
The QUIC transport protocol has several features that are desirable The QUIC transport protocol has several features that are desirable
in a transport for HTTP, such as stream multiplexing, per-stream flow in a transport for HTTP, such as stream multiplexing, per-stream flow
control, and low-latency connection establishment. This document control, and low-latency connection establishment. This document
describes a mapping of HTTP semantics over QUIC, drawing heavily on describes a mapping of HTTP semantics over QUIC, drawing heavily on
the existing TCP mapping, HTTP/2. Specifically, this document the existing TCP mapping, HTTP/2. Specifically, this document
identifies HTTP/2 features that are subsumed by QUIC, and describes identifies HTTP/2 features that are subsumed by QUIC, and describes
how the other features can be implemented atop QUIC. how the other features can be implemented atop QUIC.
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When HTTP headers and data are sent over QUIC, the QUIC layer handles When HTTP headers and data are sent over QUIC, the QUIC layer handles
most of the stream management. An HTTP request/response consumes a most of the stream management. An HTTP request/response consumes a
single stream: This means that the client's first request occurs on single stream: This means that the client's first request occurs on
QUIC stream 3, the second on stream 5, and so on. The server's first QUIC stream 3, the second on stream 5, and so on. The server's first
push consumes stream 2. push consumes stream 2.
This stream carries frames related to the request/response (see This stream carries frames related to the request/response (see
Section 5.2). When a stream terminates cleanly, if the last frame on Section 5.2). When a stream terminates cleanly, if the last frame on
the stream was truncated, this MUST be treated as a connection error the stream was truncated, this MUST be treated as a connection error
(see HTTP_MALFORMED_* in Section 6.1). Streams which terminate (see HTTP_MALFORMED_* in Section 7.1). Streams which terminate
abruptly may be reset at any point in the frame. abruptly may be reset at any point in the frame.
Streams SHOULD be used sequentially, with no gaps. Streams used for Streams SHOULD be used sequentially, with no gaps. Streams used for
pushed resources MAY be initiated out-of-order, but stream IDs SHOULD pushed resources MAY be initiated out-of-order, but stream IDs SHOULD
be allocated to promised resources sequentially. be allocated to promised resources sequentially.
HTTP does not need to do any separate multiplexing when using QUIC - HTTP does not need to do any separate multiplexing when using QUIC -
data sent over a QUIC stream always maps to a particular HTTP data sent over a QUIC stream always maps to a particular HTTP
transaction. Requests and responses are considered complete when the transaction. Requests and responses are considered complete when the
corresponding QUIC stream is closed in the appropriate direction. corresponding QUIC stream is closed in the appropriate direction.
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of DATA frames (see Section 5.2.1), of DATA frames (see Section 5.2.1),
3. optionally, one header block containing the trailer-part, if 3. optionally, one header block containing the trailer-part, if
present (see [RFC7230], Section 4.1.2). present (see [RFC7230], Section 4.1.2).
In addition, prior to sending the message header block indicated In addition, prior to sending the message header block indicated
above, a response may contain zero or more header blocks containing above, a response may contain zero or more header blocks containing
the message headers of informational (1xx) HTTP responses (see the message headers of informational (1xx) HTTP responses (see
[RFC7230], Section 3.2 and [RFC7231], Section 6.2). [RFC7230], Section 3.2 and [RFC7231], Section 6.2).
PUSH_PROMISE frames MAY be interleaved with the frames of a response
message indicating a pushed resource related to the response. These
PUSH_PROMISE frames are not part of the response, but carry the
headers of a separate HTTP request message. See Section 4.4 for more
details.
The "chunked" transfer encoding defined in Section 4.1 of [RFC7230] The "chunked" transfer encoding defined in Section 4.1 of [RFC7230]
MUST NOT be used. MUST NOT be used.
Trailing header fields are carried in an additional header block Trailing header fields are carried in an additional header block
following the body. Such a header block is a sequence of HEADERS following the body. Such a header block is a sequence of HEADERS
frames with End Header Block set on the last frame. Senders MUST frames with End Header Block set on the last frame. Senders MUST
send only one header block in the trailers section; receivers MUST send only one header block in the trailers section; receivers MUST
discard any subsequent header blocks. discard any subsequent header blocks.
An HTTP request/response exchange fully consumes a QUIC stream. An HTTP request/response exchange fully consumes a QUIC stream.
skipping to change at page 8, line 45 skipping to change at page 9, line 8
half-closes the request stream, the proxy will set the FIN bit on its half-closes the request stream, the proxy will set the FIN bit on its
connection to the TCP server. When the proxy receives a packet with connection to the TCP server. When the proxy receives a packet with
the FIN bit set, it will half-close the corresponding stream. TCP the FIN bit set, it will half-close the corresponding stream. TCP
connections which remain half-closed in a single direction are not connections which remain half-closed in a single direction are not
invalid, but are often handled poorly by servers, so clients SHOULD invalid, but are often handled poorly by servers, so clients SHOULD
NOT half-close connections on which they are still expecting data. NOT half-close connections on which they are still expecting data.
A TCP connection error is signaled with RST_STREAM. A proxy treats A TCP connection error is signaled with RST_STREAM. A proxy treats
any error in the TCP connection, which includes receiving a TCP any error in the TCP connection, which includes receiving a TCP
segment with the RST bit set, as a stream error of type segment with the RST bit set, as a stream error of type
HTTP_CONNECT_ERROR (Section 6.1). Correspondingly, a proxy MUST send HTTP_CONNECT_ERROR (Section 7.1). Correspondingly, a proxy MUST send
a TCP segment with the RST bit set if it detects an error with the a TCP segment with the RST bit set if it detects an error with the
stream or the QUIC connection. stream or the QUIC connection.
4.3. Request Prioritization 4.3. Request Prioritization
HTTP/QUIC uses the priority scheme described in [RFC7540], HTTP/QUIC uses the priority scheme described in [RFC7540],
Section 5.3. In this priority scheme, a given request can be Section 5.3. In this priority scheme, a given request can be
designated as dependent upon another request, which expresses the designated as dependent upon another request, which expresses the
preference that the latter stream (the "parent" request) be allocated preference that the latter stream (the "parent" request) be allocated
resources before the former stream (the "dependent" request). Taken resources before the former stream (the "dependent" request). Taken
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request or by using a Push ID (Section 5.2.6). Other than the means request or by using a Push ID (Section 5.2.6). Other than the means
of identifying requests, the prioritization system is identical to of identifying requests, the prioritization system is identical to
that in HTTP/2. that in HTTP/2.
Only a client can send PRIORITY frames. A server MUST NOT send a Only a client can send PRIORITY frames. A server MUST NOT send a
PRIORITY frame. PRIORITY frame.
4.4. Server Push 4.4. Server Push
HTTP/QUIC supports server push as described in [RFC7540]. During HTTP/QUIC supports server push as described in [RFC7540]. During
connection establishment, the client indicates whether it is willing connection establishment, the client enables server push by sending a
to receive server pushes via the SETTINGS_ENABLE_PUSH setting in the MAX_PUSH_ID frame (see Section 5.2.8). A server cannot use server
SETTINGS frame (see Section 3), which is disabled by default. push until it receives a MAX_PUSH_ID frame.
As with server push for HTTP/2, the server initiates a server push by As with server push for HTTP/2, the server initiates a server push by
sending a PUSH_PROMISE frame that includes request header fields sending a PUSH_PROMISE frame that includes request header fields
attributed to the request. The PUSH_PROMISE frame is sent on a attributed to the request. The PUSH_PROMISE frame is sent on a
response stream. Unlike HTTP/2, the PUSH_PROMISE does not reference response stream. Unlike HTTP/2, the PUSH_PROMISE does not reference
a stream; when a server fulfills a promise, the stream that carries a stream; when a server fulfills a promise, the stream that carries
the stream headers references the PUSH_PROMISE. This allows a server the stream headers references the PUSH_PROMISE. This allows a server
to fulfill promises in the order that best suits its needs. to fulfill promises in the order that best suits its needs.
The server push response is conveyed on a push stream. A push stream The server push response is conveyed on a push stream. A push stream
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(see Section 5.2.6). (see Section 5.2.6).
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Push ID (32) | | Push ID (32) |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
Figure 1: Push Stream Header Figure 1: Push Stream Header
A push stream always starts with a 32-bit Push ID. A client MUST
treat receiving a push stream that contains fewer than 4 octets as a
connection error of type HTTP_MALFORMED_PUSH.
A server SHOULD use Push IDs sequentially, starting at 0. A client
uses the MAX_PUSH_ID frame (Section 5.2.8) to limit the number of
pushes that a server can promise. A client MUST treat receipt of a
push stream with a Push ID that is greater than the maximum Push ID
as a connection error of type HTTP_MALFORMED_PUSH.
Each Push ID MUST only be used once in a push stream header. If a Each Push ID MUST only be used once in a push stream header. If a
push stream header includes a Push ID that was used in another push push stream header includes a Push ID that was used in another push
stream header, the client MUST treat this as a connection error of stream header, the client MUST treat this as a connection error of
type HTTP_DUPLICATE_PUSH. The same Push ID can be used in multiple type HTTP_MALFORMED_PUSH. The same Push ID can be used in multiple
PUSH_PROMISE frames (see Section 5.2.6). PUSH_PROMISE frames (see Section 5.2.6).
After the push stream header, a push contains a response After the push stream header, a push contains a response
(Section 4.2), with response headers, a response body (if any) (Section 4.2), with response headers, a response body (if any)
carried by DATA frames, then trailers (if any) carried by HEADERS carried by DATA frames, then trailers (if any) carried by HEADERS
frames. frames.
If a promised server push is not needed by the client, the client If a promised server push is not needed by the client, the client
SHOULD send a CANCEL_PUSH frame; if the push stream is already open, SHOULD send a CANCEL_PUSH frame; if the push stream is already open,
a QUIC STOP_SENDING frame with an appropriate error code can be used a QUIC STOP_SENDING frame with an appropriate error code can be used
instead (e.g., HTTP_PUSH_REFUSED, HTTP_PUSH_ALREADY_IN_CACHE; see instead (e.g., HTTP_PUSH_REFUSED, HTTP_PUSH_ALREADY_IN_CACHE; see
Section 6). This asks the server not to transfer the data and Section 7). This asks the server not to transfer the data and
indicates that it will be discarded upon receipt. indicates that it will be discarded upon receipt.
5. HTTP Framing Layer 5. HTTP Framing Layer
Frames are used on each stream. This section describes HTTP framing Frames are used on each stream. This section describes HTTP framing
in QUIC and highlights some differences from HTTP/2 framing. For in QUIC and highlights some differences from HTTP/2 framing. For
more detail on differences from HTTP/2, see Section 7.1. more detail on differences from HTTP/2, see Section 8.1.
5.1. Frame Layout 5.1. Frame Layout
All frames have the following format: All frames have the following format:
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
| Length (16) | Type (8) | Flags (8) | | Length (16) | Type (8) | Flags (8) |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
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5.2.1. DATA 5.2.1. DATA
DATA frames (type=0x0) convey arbitrary, variable-length sequences of DATA frames (type=0x0) convey arbitrary, variable-length sequences of
octets associated with an HTTP request or response payload. octets associated with an HTTP request or response payload.
The DATA frame defines no flags. The DATA frame defines no flags.
DATA frames MUST be associated with an HTTP request or response. If DATA frames MUST be associated with an HTTP request or response. If
a DATA frame is received on the control stream, the recipient MUST a DATA frame is received on the control stream, the recipient MUST
respond with a connection error (Section 6) of type respond with a connection error (Section 7) of type
HTTP_WRONG_STREAM. HTTP_WRONG_STREAM.
DATA frames MUST contain a non-zero-length payload. If a DATA frame DATA frames MUST contain a non-zero-length payload. If a DATA frame
is received with a payload length of zero, the recipient MUST respond is received with a payload length of zero, the recipient MUST respond
with a stream error (Section 6) of type HTTP_MALFORMED_DATA. with a stream error (Section 7) of type HTTP_MALFORMED_DATA.
5.2.2. HEADERS 5.2.2. HEADERS
The HEADERS frame (type=0x1) is used to carry part of a header set, The HEADERS frame (type=0x1) is used to carry part of a header set,
compressed using HPACK Section 4.2.1. compressed using HPACK Section 4.2.1.
One flag is defined: One flag is defined:
End Header Block (0x4): This frame concludes a header block. End Header Block (0x4): This frame concludes a header block.
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A SETTINGS frame MUST be sent as the first frame of the control A SETTINGS frame MUST be sent as the first frame of the control
stream (see Section 4) by each peer, and MUST NOT be sent stream (see Section 4) by each peer, and MUST NOT be sent
subsequently or on any other stream. If an endpoint receives an subsequently or on any other stream. If an endpoint receives an
SETTINGS frame on a different stream, the endpoint MUST respond with SETTINGS frame on a different stream, the endpoint MUST respond with
a connection error of type HTTP_WRONG_STREAM. If an endpoint a connection error of type HTTP_WRONG_STREAM. If an endpoint
receives a second SETTINGS frame, the endpoint MUST respond with a receives a second SETTINGS frame, the endpoint MUST respond with a
connection error of type HTTP_MULTIPLE_SETTINGS. connection error of type HTTP_MULTIPLE_SETTINGS.
The SETTINGS frame affects connection state. A badly formed or The SETTINGS frame affects connection state. A badly formed or
incomplete SETTINGS frame MUST be treated as a connection error incomplete SETTINGS frame MUST be treated as a connection error
(Section 6) of type HTTP_MALFORMED_SETTINGS. (Section 7) of type HTTP_MALFORMED_SETTINGS.
5.2.5.1. Integer encoding 5.2.5.1. Integer encoding
Settings which are integers are transmitted in network byte order. Settings which are integers are transmitted in network byte order.
Leading zero octets are permitted, but implementations SHOULD use Leading zero octets are permitted, but implementations SHOULD use
only as many bytes as are needed to represent the value. An integer only as many bytes as are needed to represent the value. An integer
MUST NOT be represented in more bytes than would be used to transfer MUST NOT be represented in more bytes than would be used to transfer
the maximum permitted value. the maximum permitted value.
5.2.5.2. Defined SETTINGS Parameters 5.2.5.2. Defined SETTINGS Parameters
The following settings are defined in HTTP/QUIC: The following settings are defined in HTTP/QUIC:
SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE (0x1): An integer with a maximum value of SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE (0x1): An integer with a maximum value of
2^32 - 1. This value MUST be zero. 2^32 - 1. This value MUST be zero.
SETTINGS_ENABLE_PUSH (0x2): Transmitted as a Boolean
SETTINGS_MAX_HEADER_LIST_SIZE (0x6): An integer with a maximum value SETTINGS_MAX_HEADER_LIST_SIZE (0x6): An integer with a maximum value
of 2^32 - 1 of 2^32 - 1
5.2.5.3. Usage in 0-RTT 5.2.5.3. Usage in 0-RTT
When a 0-RTT QUIC connection is being used, the client's initial When a 0-RTT QUIC connection is being used, the client's initial
requests will be sent before the arrival of the server's SETTINGS requests will be sent before the arrival of the server's SETTINGS
frame. Clients SHOULD cache at least the following settings about frame. Clients SHOULD cache at least the following settings about
servers: servers:
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The payload consists of: The payload consists of:
Push ID: A 32-bit identifier for the server push request. A push ID Push ID: A 32-bit identifier for the server push request. A push ID
is used in push stream header (Section 4.4), CANCEL_PUSH frames is used in push stream header (Section 4.4), CANCEL_PUSH frames
(Section 5.2.4), and PRIORITY frames (Section 5.2.3). (Section 5.2.4), and PRIORITY frames (Section 5.2.3).
Header Block: HPACK-compressed request headers for the promised Header Block: HPACK-compressed request headers for the promised
response. response.
A server MUST NOT use a Push ID that is larger than the client has
provided in a MAX_PUSH_ID frame (Section 5.2.8). A client MUST treat
receipt of a PUSH_PROMISE that contains a larger Push ID than the
client has advertised as a connection error of type
HTTP_MALFORMED_PUSH_PROMISE.
A server MAY use the same Push ID in multiple PUSH_PROMISE frames. A server MAY use the same Push ID in multiple PUSH_PROMISE frames.
This allows the server to use the same server push in response to This allows the server to use the same server push in response to
multiple concurrent requests. Referencing the same server push multiple concurrent requests. Referencing the same server push
ensures that a PUSH_PROMISE can be made in relation to every response ensures that a PUSH_PROMISE can be made in relation to every response
in which server push might be needed without duplicating pushes. in which server push might be needed without duplicating pushes.
A server that uses the same Push ID in multiple PUSH_PROMISE frames A server that uses the same Push ID in multiple PUSH_PROMISE frames
MUST include the same header fields each time. The octets of the MUST include the same header fields each time. The octets of the
header block MAY be different due to differing encoding, but the header block MAY be different due to differing encoding, but the
header fields and their values MUST be identical. Note that ordering header fields and their values MUST be identical. Note that ordering
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a connection by a server. GOAWAY allows a server to stop accepting a connection by a server. GOAWAY allows a server to stop accepting
new requests while still finishing processing of previously received new requests while still finishing processing of previously received
requests. This enables administrative actions, like server requests. This enables administrative actions, like server
maintenance. GOAWAY by itself does not close a connection. (Note maintenance. GOAWAY by itself does not close a connection. (Note
that clients do not need to send GOAWAY to gracefully close a that clients do not need to send GOAWAY to gracefully close a
connection; they simply stop making new requests.) connection; they simply stop making new requests.)
The GOAWAY frame does not define any flags, and the payload is a QUIC The GOAWAY frame does not define any flags, and the payload is a QUIC
stream identifier. The GOAWAY frame applies to the connection, not a stream identifier. The GOAWAY frame applies to the connection, not a
specific stream. An endpoint MUST treat a GOAWAY frame on a stream specific stream. An endpoint MUST treat a GOAWAY frame on a stream
other than the control stream as a connection error (Section 6) of other than the control stream as a connection error (Section 7) of
type HTTP_WRONG_STREAM. type HTTP_WRONG_STREAM.
New client requests might already have been sent before the client New client requests might already have been sent before the client
receives the server's GOAWAY frame. The GOAWAY frame contains the receives the server's GOAWAY frame. The GOAWAY frame contains the
stream identifier of the last client-initiated request that was or stream identifier of the last client-initiated request that was or
might be processed in this connection, which enables client and might be processed in this connection, which enables client and
server to agree on which requests were accepted prior to the server to agree on which requests were accepted prior to the
connection shutdown. This identifier MAY be lower than the stream connection shutdown. This identifier MAY be lower than the stream
limit identified by a QUIC MAX_STREAM_ID frame, and MAY be zero if no limit identified by a QUIC MAX_STREAM_ID frame, and MAY be zero if no
requests were processed. Servers SHOULD NOT increase the requests were processed. Servers SHOULD NOT increase the
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MUST NOT send new requests on the connection after receiving GOAWAY, MUST NOT send new requests on the connection after receiving GOAWAY,
although requests might already be in transit. A new connection can although requests might already be in transit. A new connection can
be established for new requests. be established for new requests.
If the client has sent requests on streams with a higher stream If the client has sent requests on streams with a higher stream
identifier than indicated in the GOAWAY frame, those requests were identifier than indicated in the GOAWAY frame, those requests were
not and will not be processed. Endpoints SHOULD reset any streams not and will not be processed. Endpoints SHOULD reset any streams
above this ID with the error code HTTP_REQUEST_CANCELLED. Servers above this ID with the error code HTTP_REQUEST_CANCELLED. Servers
MAY also reset streams below the indicated ID with MAY also reset streams below the indicated ID with
HTTP_REQUEST_CANCELLED if the associated requests were not processed. HTTP_REQUEST_CANCELLED if the associated requests were not processed.
Servers MUST NOT use the HTTP_REQUEST_CANCELLED status for requests
which were partially or fully processed.
The client can treat requests cancelled by the server as though they The client can treat requests cancelled by the server as though they
had never been sent at all, thereby allowing them to be retried later had never been sent at all, thereby allowing them to be retried later
on a new connection. Automatically retrying other requests is not on a new connection. If a stream is cancelled after receiving a
possible, unless this is otherwise permitted (e.g. idempotent actions complete response, the client MAY ignore the cancellation and use the
like GET, PUT, or DELETE). Requests on stream IDs less than or equal response. However, if a stream is cancelled after receiving a
to the stream ID in the GOAWAY frame might have been processed; their partial response, the response SHOULD NOT be used. Automatically
status cannot be known until they are completed successfully, reset, retrying such requests is not possible, unless this is otherwise
or the connection terminates. permitted (e.g. idempotent actions like GET, PUT, or DELETE).
Requests on stream IDs less than or equal to the stream ID in the
GOAWAY frame might have been processed; their status cannot be known
until they are completed successfully, reset individually, or the
connection terminates.
Servers SHOULD send a GOAWAY frame when the closing of a connection Servers SHOULD send a GOAWAY frame when the closing of a connection
is known in advance, even if the advance notice is small, so that the is known in advance, even if the advance notice is small, so that the
remote peer can know whether a stream has been partially processed or remote peer can know whether a stream has been partially processed or
not. For example, if an HTTP client sends a POST at the same time not. For example, if an HTTP client sends a POST at the same time
that a server closes a QUIC connection, the client cannot know if the that a server closes a QUIC connection, the client cannot know if the
server started to process that POST request if the server does not server started to process that POST request if the server does not
send a GOAWAY frame to indicate what streams it might have acted on. send a GOAWAY frame to indicate what streams it might have acted on.
For unexpected closures caused by error conditions, a QUIC For unexpected closures caused by error conditions, a QUIC
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attempting to gracefully shut down a connection SHOULD send an attempting to gracefully shut down a connection SHOULD send an
initial GOAWAY frame with the last stream identifier set to the initial GOAWAY frame with the last stream identifier set to the
current value of QUIC's MAX_STREAM_ID and SHOULD NOT increase the current value of QUIC's MAX_STREAM_ID and SHOULD NOT increase the
MAX_STREAM_ID thereafter. This signals to the client that a shutdown MAX_STREAM_ID thereafter. This signals to the client that a shutdown
is imminent and that initiating further requests is prohibited. is imminent and that initiating further requests is prohibited.
After allowing time for any in-flight requests (at least one round- After allowing time for any in-flight requests (at least one round-
trip time), the server MAY send another GOAWAY frame with an updated trip time), the server MAY send another GOAWAY frame with an updated
last stream identifier. This ensures that a connection can be last stream identifier. This ensures that a connection can be
cleanly shut down without losing requests. cleanly shut down without losing requests.
6. Error Handling 5.2.8. MAX_PUSH_ID
The MAX_PUSH_ID frame (type=0xD) is used by clients to control the
number of server pushes that the server can initiate. This sets the
maximum value for a Push ID that the server can use in a PUSH_PROMISE
frame. Consequently, this also limits the number of push streams
that the server can initiate in addition to the limit set by the QUIC
MAX_STREAM_ID frame.
The MAX_PUSH_ID frame is always sent on the control stream. Receipt
of a MAX_PUSH_ID frame on any other stream MUST be treated as a
connection error of type HTTP_WRONG_STREAM.
A server MUST NOT send a MAX_PUSH_ID frame. A client MUST treat the
receipt of a MAX_PUSH_ID frame as a connection error of type
HTTP_MALFORMED_MAX_PUSH_ID.
The maximum Push ID is unset when a connection is created, meaning
that a server cannot push until it receives a MAX_PUSH_ID frame. A
client that wishes to manage the number of promised server pushes can
increase the maximum Push ID by sending a MAX_PUSH_ID frame as the
server fulfills or cancels server pushes.
The MAX_PUSH_ID frame has no defined flags.
The MAX_PUSH_ID frame carries a 32-bit Push ID that identifies the
maximum value for a Push ID that the server can use (see
Section 5.2.6). A MAX_PUSH_ID frame cannot reduce the maximum Push
ID; receipt of a MAX_PUSH_ID that contains a smaller value than
previously received MUST be treated as a connection error of type
HTTP_MALFORMED_MAX_PUSH_ID.
A server MUST treat a MAX_PUSH_ID frame payload that is other than 4
octets in length as a connection error of type
HTTP_MALFORMED_MAX_PUSH_ID.
6. Connection Management
QUIC connections are persistent. All of the considerations in
Section 9.1 of [RFC7540] apply to the management of QUIC connections.
HTTP clients are expected to use QUIC PING frames to keep connections
open. Servers SHOULD NOT use PING frames to keep a connection open.
A client SHOULD NOT use PING frames for this purpose unless there are
responses outstanding for requests or server pushes. If the client
is not expecting a response from the server, allowing an idle
connection to time out (based on the idle_timeout transport
parameter) is preferred over expending effort maintaining a
connection that might not be needed. A gateway MAY use PING to
maintain connections in anticipation of need rather than incur the
latency cost of connection establishment to servers.
7. Error Handling
QUIC allows the application to abruptly terminate (reset) individual QUIC allows the application to abruptly terminate (reset) individual
streams or the entire connection when an error is encountered. These streams or the entire connection when an error is encountered. These
are referred to as "stream errors" or "connection errors" and are are referred to as "stream errors" or "connection errors" and are
described in more detail in [QUIC-TRANSPORT]. described in more detail in [QUIC-TRANSPORT].
This section describes HTTP-specific error codes which can be used to This section describes HTTP-specific error codes which can be used to
express the cause of a connection or stream error. express the cause of a connection or stream error.
6.1. HTTP-Defined QUIC Error Codes 7.1. HTTP-Defined QUIC Error Codes
QUIC allocates error codes 0x0000-0x3FFF to application protocol QUIC allocates error codes 0x0000-0x3FFF to application protocol
definition. The following error codes are defined by HTTP for use in definition. The following error codes are defined by HTTP for use in
QUIC RST_STREAM and CONNECTION_CLOSE frames. QUIC RST_STREAM and CONNECTION_CLOSE frames.
HTTP_PUSH_REFUSED (0x01): The server has attempted to push content HTTP_PUSH_REFUSED (0x01): The server has attempted to push content
which the client will not accept on this connection. which the client will not accept on this connection.
HTTP_INTERNAL_ERROR (0x02): An internal error has occurred in the HTTP_INTERNAL_ERROR (0x02): An internal error has occurred in the
HTTP stack. HTTP stack.
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HTTP_INTERRUPTED_HEADERS (0x0E): A HEADERS frame without the End HTTP_INTERRUPTED_HEADERS (0x0E): A HEADERS frame without the End
Header Block flag was followed by a frame other than HEADERS. Header Block flag was followed by a frame other than HEADERS.
HTTP_WRONG_STREAM (0x0F): A frame was received on stream where it is HTTP_WRONG_STREAM (0x0F): A frame was received on stream where it is
not permitted. not permitted.
HTTP_MULTIPLE_SETTINGS (0x10): More than one SETTINGS frame was HTTP_MULTIPLE_SETTINGS (0x10): More than one SETTINGS frame was
received. received.
HTTP_DUPLICATE_PUSH (0x11): Multiple push streams used the same Push HTTP_MALFORMED_PUSH (0x11): A push stream header was malformed or
ID. included an invalid Push ID.
7. Considerations for Transitioning from HTTP/2 HTTP_MALFORMED_MAX_PUSH_ID (0x12): A MAX_PUSH_ID frame has been
received with an invalid format.
8. Considerations for Transitioning from HTTP/2
HTTP/QUIC is strongly informed by HTTP/2, and bears many HTTP/QUIC is strongly informed by HTTP/2, and bears many
similarities. This section describes the approach taken to design similarities. This section describes the approach taken to design
HTTP/QUIC, points out important differences from HTTP/2, and HTTP/QUIC, points out important differences from HTTP/2, and
describes how to map HTTP/2 extensions into HTTP/QUIC. describes how to map HTTP/2 extensions into HTTP/QUIC.
HTTP/QUIC begins from the premise that HTTP/2 code reuse is a useful HTTP/QUIC begins from the premise that HTTP/2 code reuse is a useful
feature, but not a hard requirement. HTTP/QUIC departs from HTTP/2 feature, but not a hard requirement. HTTP/QUIC departs from HTTP/2
primarily where necessary to accommodate the differences in behavior primarily where necessary to accommodate the differences in behavior
between QUIC and TCP (lack of ordering, support for streams). We between QUIC and TCP (lack of ordering, support for streams). We
intend to avoid gratuitous changes which make it difficult or intend to avoid gratuitous changes which make it difficult or
impossible to build extensions with the same semantics applicable to impossible to build extensions with the same semantics applicable to
both protocols at once. both protocols at once.
These departures are noted in this section. These departures are noted in this section.
7.1. HTTP Frame Types 8.1. HTTP Frame Types
Many framing concepts from HTTP/2 can be elided away on QUIC, because Many framing concepts from HTTP/2 can be elided away on QUIC, because
the transport deals with them. Because frames are already on a the transport deals with them. Because frames are already on a
stream, they can omit the stream number. Because frames do not block stream, they can omit the stream number. Because frames do not block
multiplexing (QUIC's multiplexing occurs below this layer), the multiplexing (QUIC's multiplexing occurs below this layer), the
support for variable-maximum-length packets can be removed. Because support for variable-maximum-length packets can be removed. Because
stream termination is handled by QUIC, an END_STREAM flag is not stream termination is handled by QUIC, an END_STREAM flag is not
required. required.
Frame payloads are largely drawn from [RFC7540]. However, QUIC Frame payloads are largely drawn from [RFC7540]. However, QUIC
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is not defined in HTTP/QUIC frames. See Section 5.2.2. is not defined in HTTP/QUIC frames. See Section 5.2.2.
PRIORITY (0x2): As described above, the PRIORITY frame is sent on PRIORITY (0x2): As described above, the PRIORITY frame is sent on
the control stream. See Section 5.2.3. the control stream. See Section 5.2.3.
RST_STREAM (0x3): RST_STREAM frames do not exist, since QUIC RST_STREAM (0x3): RST_STREAM frames do not exist, since QUIC
provides stream lifecycle management. The same code point is used provides stream lifecycle management. The same code point is used
for the CANCEL_PUSH frame (Section 5.2.4). for the CANCEL_PUSH frame (Section 5.2.4).
SETTINGS (0x4): SETTINGS frames are sent only at the beginning of SETTINGS (0x4): SETTINGS frames are sent only at the beginning of
the connection. See Section 5.2.5 and Section 7.2. the connection. See Section 5.2.5 and Section 8.2.
PUSH_PROMISE (0x5): The PUSH_PROMISE does not reference a stream; PUSH_PROMISE (0x5): The PUSH_PROMISE does not reference a stream;
instead the push stream references the PUSH_PROMISE frame using a instead the push stream references the PUSH_PROMISE frame using a
Push ID. See Section 5.2.6. Push ID. See Section 5.2.6.
PING (0x6): PING frames do not exist, since QUIC provides equivalent PING (0x6): PING frames do not exist, since QUIC provides equivalent
functionality. functionality.
GOAWAY (0x7): GOAWAY is sent only from server to client and does not GOAWAY (0x7): GOAWAY is sent only from server to client and does not
contain an error code. See Section 5.2.7. contain an error code. See Section 5.2.7.
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WINDOW_UPDATE (0x8): WINDOW_UPDATE frames do not exist, since QUIC WINDOW_UPDATE (0x8): WINDOW_UPDATE frames do not exist, since QUIC
provides flow control. provides flow control.
CONTINUATION (0x9): CONTINUATION frames do not exist; instead, CONTINUATION (0x9): CONTINUATION frames do not exist; instead,
larger HEADERS/PUSH_PROMISE frames than HTTP/2 are permitted, and larger HEADERS/PUSH_PROMISE frames than HTTP/2 are permitted, and
HEADERS frames can be used in series. HEADERS frames can be used in series.
Frame types defined by extensions to HTTP/2 need to be separately Frame types defined by extensions to HTTP/2 need to be separately
registered for HTTP/QUIC if still applicable. The IDs of frames registered for HTTP/QUIC if still applicable. The IDs of frames
defined in [RFC7540] have been reserved for simplicity. See defined in [RFC7540] have been reserved for simplicity. See
Section 9.3. Section 10.3.
7.2. HTTP/2 SETTINGS Parameters 8.2. HTTP/2 SETTINGS Parameters
An important difference from HTTP/2 is that settings are sent once, An important difference from HTTP/2 is that settings are sent once,
at the beginning of the connection, and thereafter cannot change. at the beginning of the connection, and thereafter cannot change.
This eliminates many corner cases around synchronization of changes. This eliminates many corner cases around synchronization of changes.
Some transport-level options that HTTP/2 specifies via the SETTINGS Some transport-level options that HTTP/2 specifies via the SETTINGS
frame are superseded by QUIC transport parameters in HTTP/QUIC. The frame are superseded by QUIC transport parameters in HTTP/QUIC. The
HTTP-level options that are retained in HTTP/QUIC have the same value HTTP-level options that are retained in HTTP/QUIC have the same value
as in HTTP/2. as in HTTP/2.
Below is a listing of how each HTTP/2 SETTINGS parameter is mapped: Below is a listing of how each HTTP/2 SETTINGS parameter is mapped:
SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE: See Section 5.2.5.2. SETTINGS_HEADER_TABLE_SIZE: See Section 5.2.5.2.
SETTINGS_ENABLE_PUSH: See Section 5.2.5.2. SETTINGS_ENABLE_PUSH: This is removed in favor of the MAX_PUSH_ID
which provides a more granular control over server push.
SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS: QUIC controls the largest open SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS: QUIC controls the largest open
stream ID as part of its flow control logic. Specifying stream ID as part of its flow control logic. Specifying
SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS in the SETTINGS frame is an error. SETTINGS_MAX_CONCURRENT_STREAMS in the SETTINGS frame is an error.
SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE: QUIC requires both stream and SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE: QUIC requires both stream and
connection flow control window sizes to be specified in the connection flow control window sizes to be specified in the
initial transport handshake. Specifying initial transport handshake. Specifying
SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE in the SETTINGS frame is an error. SETTINGS_INITIAL_WINDOW_SIZE in the SETTINGS frame is an error.
SETTINGS_MAX_FRAME_SIZE: This setting has no equivalent in HTTP/ SETTINGS_MAX_FRAME_SIZE: This setting has no equivalent in HTTP/
QUIC. Specifying it in the SETTINGS frame is an error. QUIC. Specifying it in the SETTINGS frame is an error.
SETTINGS_MAX_HEADER_LIST_SIZE: See Section 5.2.5.2. SETTINGS_MAX_HEADER_LIST_SIZE: See Section 5.2.5.2.
Settings need to be defined separately for HTTP/2 and HTTP/QUIC. The Settings need to be defined separately for HTTP/2 and HTTP/QUIC. The
IDs of settings defined in [RFC7540] have been reserved for IDs of settings defined in [RFC7540] have been reserved for
simplicity. See Section 9.4. simplicity. See Section 10.4.
7.3. HTTP/2 Error Codes 8.3. HTTP/2 Error Codes
QUIC has the same concepts of "stream" and "connection" errors that QUIC has the same concepts of "stream" and "connection" errors that
HTTP/2 provides. However, because the error code space is shared HTTP/2 provides. However, because the error code space is shared
between multiple components, there is no direct portability of HTTP/2 between multiple components, there is no direct portability of HTTP/2
error codes. error codes.
The HTTP/2 error codes defined in Section 7 of [RFC7540] map to QUIC The HTTP/2 error codes defined in Section 7 of [RFC7540] map to QUIC
error codes as follows: error codes as follows:
NO_ERROR (0x0): QUIC_NO_ERROR NO_ERROR (0x0): QUIC_NO_ERROR
PROTOCOL_ERROR (0x1): No single mapping. See new HTTP_MALFORMED_* PROTOCOL_ERROR (0x1): No single mapping. See new HTTP_MALFORMED_*
error codes defined in Section 6.1. error codes defined in Section 7.1.
INTERNAL_ERROR (0x2): HTTP_INTERNAL_ERROR in Section 6.1. INTERNAL_ERROR (0x2): HTTP_INTERNAL_ERROR in Section 7.1.
FLOW_CONTROL_ERROR (0x3): Not applicable, since QUIC handles flow FLOW_CONTROL_ERROR (0x3): Not applicable, since QUIC handles flow
control. Would provoke a QUIC_FLOW_CONTROL_RECEIVED_TOO_MUCH_DATA control. Would provoke a QUIC_FLOW_CONTROL_RECEIVED_TOO_MUCH_DATA
from the QUIC layer. from the QUIC layer.
SETTINGS_TIMEOUT (0x4): Not applicable, since no acknowledgement of SETTINGS_TIMEOUT (0x4): Not applicable, since no acknowledgement of
SETTINGS is defined. SETTINGS is defined.
STREAM_CLOSED (0x5): Not applicable, since QUIC handles stream STREAM_CLOSED (0x5): Not applicable, since QUIC handles stream
management. Would provoke a QUIC_STREAM_DATA_AFTER_TERMINATION management. Would provoke a QUIC_STREAM_DATA_AFTER_TERMINATION
from the QUIC layer. from the QUIC layer.
FRAME_SIZE_ERROR (0x6) No single mapping. See new error codes FRAME_SIZE_ERROR (0x6) No single mapping. See new error codes
defined in Section 6.1. defined in Section 7.1.
REFUSED_STREAM (0x7): Not applicable, since QUIC handles stream REFUSED_STREAM (0x7): Not applicable, since QUIC handles stream
management. Would provoke a QUIC_TOO_MANY_OPEN_STREAMS from the management. Would provoke a QUIC_TOO_MANY_OPEN_STREAMS from the
QUIC layer. QUIC layer.
CANCEL (0x8): HTTP_REQUEST_CANCELLED in Section 6.1. CANCEL (0x8): HTTP_REQUEST_CANCELLED in Section 7.1.
COMPRESSION_ERROR (0x9): HTTP_HPACK_DECOMPRESSION_FAILED in COMPRESSION_ERROR (0x9): HTTP_HPACK_DECOMPRESSION_FAILED in
Section 6.1. Section 7.1.
CONNECT_ERROR (0xa): HTTP_CONNECT_ERROR in Section 6.1. CONNECT_ERROR (0xa): HTTP_CONNECT_ERROR in Section 7.1.
ENHANCE_YOUR_CALM (0xb): HTTP_EXCESSIVE_LOAD in Section 6.1. ENHANCE_YOUR_CALM (0xb): HTTP_EXCESSIVE_LOAD in Section 7.1.
INADEQUATE_SECURITY (0xc): Not applicable, since QUIC is assumed to INADEQUATE_SECURITY (0xc): Not applicable, since QUIC is assumed to
provide sufficient security on all connections. provide sufficient security on all connections.
HTTP_1_1_REQUIRED (0xd): HTTP_VERSION_FALLBACK in Section 6.1. HTTP_1_1_REQUIRED (0xd): HTTP_VERSION_FALLBACK in Section 7.1.
Error codes need to be defined for HTTP/2 and HTTP/QUIC separately. Error codes need to be defined for HTTP/2 and HTTP/QUIC separately.
See Section 9.5. See Section 10.5.
8. Security Considerations 9. Security Considerations
The security considerations of HTTP over QUIC should be comparable to The security considerations of HTTP over QUIC should be comparable to
those of HTTP/2. those of HTTP/2.
The modified SETTINGS format contains nested length elements, which The modified SETTINGS format contains nested length elements, which
could pose a security risk to an uncautious implementer. A SETTINGS could pose a security risk to an uncautious implementer. A SETTINGS
frame parser MUST ensure that the length of the frame exactly matches frame parser MUST ensure that the length of the frame exactly matches
the length of the settings it contains. the length of the settings it contains.
9. IANA Considerations 10. IANA Considerations
9.1. Registration of HTTP/QUIC Identification String 10.1. Registration of HTTP/QUIC Identification String
This document creates a new registration for the identification of This document creates a new registration for the identification of
HTTP/QUIC in the "Application Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN) HTTP/QUIC in the "Application Layer Protocol Negotiation (ALPN)
Protocol IDs" registry established in [RFC7301]. Protocol IDs" registry established in [RFC7301].
The "hq" string identifies HTTP/QUIC: The "hq" string identifies HTTP/QUIC:
Protocol: HTTP over QUIC Protocol: HTTP over QUIC
Identification Sequence: 0x68 0x71 ("hq") Identification Sequence: 0x68 0x71 ("hq")
Specification: This document Specification: This document
9.2. Registration of QUIC Version Hint Alt-Svc Parameter 10.2. Registration of QUIC Version Hint Alt-Svc Parameter
This document creates a new registration for version-negotiation This document creates a new registration for version-negotiation
hints in the "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Alt-Svc Parameter" hints in the "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Alt-Svc Parameter"
registry established in [RFC7838]. registry established in [RFC7838].
Parameter: "quic" Parameter: "quic"
Specification: This document, Section 2.1 Specification: This document, Section 2.1
9.3. Frame Types 10.3. Frame Types
This document establishes a registry for HTTP/QUIC frame type codes. This document establishes a registry for HTTP/QUIC frame type codes.
The "HTTP/QUIC Frame Type" registry manages an 8-bit space. The The "HTTP/QUIC Frame Type" registry manages an 8-bit space. The
"HTTP/QUIC Frame Type" registry operates under either of the "IETF "HTTP/QUIC Frame Type" registry operates under either of the "IETF
Review" or "IESG Approval" policies [RFC5226] for values between 0x00 Review" or "IESG Approval" policies [RFC5226] for values between 0x00
and 0xef, with values between 0xf0 and 0xff being reserved for and 0xef, with values between 0xf0 and 0xff being reserved for
Experimental Use. Experimental Use.
While this registry is separate from the "HTTP/2 Frame Type" registry While this registry is separate from the "HTTP/2 Frame Type" registry
defined in [RFC7540], it is preferable that the assignments parallel defined in [RFC7540], it is preferable that the assignments parallel
skipping to change at page 26, line 46 skipping to change at page 28, line 27
| | | | | | | |
| PUSH_PROMISE | 0x5 | Section 5.2.6 | | PUSH_PROMISE | 0x5 | Section 5.2.6 |
| | | | | | | |
| Reserved | 0x6 | N/A | | Reserved | 0x6 | N/A |
| | | | | | | |
| GOAWAY | 0x7 | Section 5.2.7 | | GOAWAY | 0x7 | Section 5.2.7 |
| | | | | | | |
| Reserved | 0x8 | N/A | | Reserved | 0x8 | N/A |
| | | | | | | |
| Reserved | 0x9 | N/A | | Reserved | 0x9 | N/A |
| | | |
| MAX_PUSH_ID | 0xD | Section 5.2.8 |
+--------------+------+----------------+ +--------------+------+----------------+
9.4. Settings Parameters 10.4. Settings Parameters
This document establishes a registry for HTTP/QUIC settings. The This document establishes a registry for HTTP/QUIC settings. The
"HTTP/QUIC Settings" registry manages a 16-bit space. The "HTTP/QUIC "HTTP/QUIC Settings" registry manages a 16-bit space. The "HTTP/QUIC
Settings" registry operates under the "Expert Review" policy Settings" registry operates under the "Expert Review" policy
[RFC5226] for values in the range from 0x0000 to 0xefff, with values [RFC5226] for values in the range from 0x0000 to 0xefff, with values
between and 0xf000 and 0xffff being reserved for Experimental Use. between and 0xf000 and 0xffff being reserved for Experimental Use.
The designated experts are the same as those for the "HTTP/2 The designated experts are the same as those for the "HTTP/2
Settings" registry defined in [RFC7540]. Settings" registry defined in [RFC7540].
While this registry is separate from the "HTTP/2 Settings" registry While this registry is separate from the "HTTP/2 Settings" registry
defined in [RFC7540], it is preferable that the assignments parallel defined in [RFC7540], it is preferable that the assignments parallel
each other. If an entry is present in only one registry, every each other. If an entry is present in only one registry, every
effort SHOULD be made to avoid assigning the corresponding value to effort SHOULD be made to avoid assigning the corresponding value to
an unrelated operation. an unrelated operation.
skipping to change at page 27, line 33 skipping to change at page 29, line 15
Specification: An optional reference to a specification that Specification: An optional reference to a specification that
describes the use of the setting. describes the use of the setting.
The entries in the following table are registered by this document. The entries in the following table are registered by this document.
+----------------------+------+------------------+ +----------------------+------+------------------+
| Setting Name | Code | Specification | | Setting Name | Code | Specification |
+----------------------+------+------------------+ +----------------------+------+------------------+
| HEADER_TABLE_SIZE | 0x1 | Section 5.2.5.2 | | HEADER_TABLE_SIZE | 0x1 | Section 5.2.5.2 |
| | | | | | | |
| ENABLE_PUSH | 0x2 | Section 5.2.5.2 | | Reserved | 0x2 | N/A |
| | | | | | | |
| Reserved | 0x3 | N/A | | Reserved | 0x3 | N/A |
| | | | | | | |
| Reserved | 0x4 | N/A | | Reserved | 0x4 | N/A |
| | | | | | | |
| Reserved | 0x5 | N/A | | Reserved | 0x5 | N/A |
| | | | | | | |
| MAX_HEADER_LIST_SIZE | 0x6 | Section 5.2.5.2 | | MAX_HEADER_LIST_SIZE | 0x6 | Section 5.2.5.2 |
+----------------------+------+------------------+ +----------------------+------+------------------+
9.5. Error Codes 10.5. Error Codes
This document establishes a registry for HTTP/QUIC error codes. The This document establishes a registry for HTTP/QUIC error codes. The
"HTTP/QUIC Error Code" registry manages a 30-bit space. The "HTTP/ "HTTP/QUIC Error Code" registry manages a 30-bit space. The "HTTP/
QUIC Error Code" registry operates under the "Expert Review" policy QUIC Error Code" registry operates under the "Expert Review" policy
[RFC5226]. [RFC5226].
Registrations for error codes are required to include a description Registrations for error codes are required to include a description
of the error code. An expert reviewer is advised to examine new of the error code. An expert reviewer is advised to examine new
registrations for possible duplication with existing error codes. registrations for possible duplication with existing error codes.
Use of existing registrations is to be encouraged, but not mandated. Use of existing registrations is to be encouraged, but not mandated.
skipping to change at page 28, line 26 skipping to change at page 30, line 9
Specification: An optional reference for a specification that Specification: An optional reference for a specification that
defines the error code. defines the error code.
The entries in the following table are registered by this document. The entries in the following table are registered by this document.
+------------------------------+-----+--------------+---------------+ +------------------------------+-----+--------------+---------------+
| Name | Cod | Description | Specification | | Name | Cod | Description | Specification |
| | e | | | | | e | | |
+------------------------------+-----+--------------+---------------+ +------------------------------+-----+--------------+---------------+
| HTTP_PUSH_REFUSED | 0x0 | Client | Section 6.1 | | HTTP_PUSH_REFUSED | 0x0 | Client | Section 7.1 |
| | 1 | refused | | | | 1 | refused | |
| | | pushed | | | | | pushed | |
| | | content | | | | | content | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| HTTP_INTERNAL_ERROR | 0x0 | Internal | Section 6.1 | | HTTP_INTERNAL_ERROR | 0x0 | Internal | Section 7.1 |
| | 2 | error | | | | 2 | error | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| HTTP_PUSH_ALREADY_IN_CACHE | 0x0 | Pushed | Section 6.1 | | HTTP_PUSH_ALREADY_IN_CACHE | 0x0 | Pushed | Section 7.1 |
| | 3 | content | | | | 3 | content | |
| | | already | | | | | already | |
| | | cached | | | | | cached | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| HTTP_REQUEST_CANCELLED | 0x0 | Data no | Section 6.1 | | HTTP_REQUEST_CANCELLED | 0x0 | Data no | Section 7.1 |
| | 4 | longer | | | | 4 | longer | |
| | | needed | | | | | needed | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| HTTP_HPACK_DECOMPRESSION_FAI | 0x0 | HPACK cannot | Section 6.1 | | HTTP_HPACK_DECOMPRESSION_FAI | 0x0 | HPACK cannot | Section 7.1 |
| LED | 5 | continue | | | LED | 5 | continue | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| HTTP_CONNECT_ERROR | 0x0 | TCP reset or | Section 6.1 | | HTTP_CONNECT_ERROR | 0x0 | TCP reset or | Section 7.1 |
| | 6 | error on | | | | 6 | error on | |
| | | CONNECT | | | | | CONNECT | |
| | | request | | | | | request | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| HTTP_EXCESSIVE_LOAD | 0x0 | Peer | Section 6.1 | | HTTP_EXCESSIVE_LOAD | 0x0 | Peer | Section 7.1 |
| | 7 | generating | | | | 7 | generating | |
| | | excessive | | | | | excessive | |
| | | load | | | | | load | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| HTTP_VERSION_FALLBACK | 0x0 | Retry over | Section 6.1 | | HTTP_VERSION_FALLBACK | 0x0 | Retry over | Section 7.1 |
| | 8 | HTTP/2 | | | | 8 | HTTP/2 | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| HTTP_MALFORMED_HEADERS | 0x0 | Invalid | Section 6.1 | | HTTP_MALFORMED_HEADERS | 0x0 | Invalid | Section 7.1 |
| | 9 | HEADERS | | | | 9 | HEADERS | |
| | | frame | | | | | frame | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| HTTP_MALFORMED_PRIORITY | 0x0 | Invalid | Section 6.1 | | HTTP_MALFORMED_PRIORITY | 0x0 | Invalid | Section 7.1 |
| | A | PRIORITY | | | | A | PRIORITY | |
| | | frame | | | | | frame | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| HTTP_MALFORMED_SETTINGS | 0x0 | Invalid | Section 6.1 | | HTTP_MALFORMED_SETTINGS | 0x0 | Invalid | Section 7.1 |
| | B | SETTINGS | | | | B | SETTINGS | |
| | | frame | | | | | frame | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| HTTP_MALFORMED_PUSH_PROMISE | 0x0 | Invalid | Section 6.1 | | HTTP_MALFORMED_PUSH_PROMISE | 0x0 | Invalid | Section 7.1 |
| | C | PUSH_PROMISE | | | | C | PUSH_PROMISE | |
| | | frame | | | | | frame | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| HTTP_MALFORMED_DATA | 0x0 | Invalid DATA | Section 6.1 | | HTTP_MALFORMED_DATA | 0x0 | Invalid DATA | Section 7.1 |
| | D | frame | | | | D | frame | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| HTTP_INTERRUPTED_HEADERS | 0x0 | Incomplete | Section 6.1 | | HTTP_INTERRUPTED_HEADERS | 0x0 | Incomplete | Section 7.1 |
| | E | HEADERS | | | | E | HEADERS | |
| | | block | | | | | block | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| HTTP_WRONG_STREAM | 0x0 | A frame was | Section 6.1 | | HTTP_WRONG_STREAM | 0x0 | A frame was | Section 7.1 |
| | F | sent on the | | | | F | sent on the | |
| | | wrong stream | | | | | wrong stream | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| HTTP_MULTIPLE_SETTINGS | 0x1 | Multiple | Section 6.1 | | HTTP_MULTIPLE_SETTINGS | 0x1 | Multiple | Section 7.1 |
| | 0 | SETTINGS | | | | 0 | SETTINGS | |
| | | frames | | | | | frames | |
| | | | | | | | | |
| HTTP_DUPLICATE_PUSH | 0x1 | Duplicate | Section 6.1 | | HTTP_MALFORMED_PUSH | 0x1 | Invalid push | Section 7.1 |
| | 1 | server push | | | | 1 | stream | |
| | | header | |
| | | | |
| HTTP_MALFORMED_MAX_PUSH_ID | 0x1 | Invalid | Section 7.1 |
| | 2 | MAX_PUSH_ID | |
| | | frame | |
+------------------------------+-----+--------------+---------------+ +------------------------------+-----+--------------+---------------+
10. References 11. References
10.1. Normative References
11.1. Normative References
[QUIC-TRANSPORT] [QUIC-TRANSPORT]
Iyengar, J., Ed. and M. Thomson, Ed., "QUIC: A UDP-Based Iyengar, J., Ed. and M. Thomson, Ed., "QUIC: A UDP-Based
Multiplexed and Secure Transport", draft-ietf-quic- Multiplexed and Secure Transport", draft-ietf-quic-
transport-latest (work in progress). transport-latest (work in progress).
[RFC0793] Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7, [RFC0793] Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol", STD 7,
RFC 793, DOI 10.17487/RFC0793, September 1981, RFC 793, DOI 10.17487/RFC0793, September 1981,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc793>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc793>.
skipping to change at page 31, line 5 skipping to change at page 32, line 33
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7540>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7540>.
[RFC7541] Peon, R. and H. Ruellan, "HPACK: Header Compression for [RFC7541] Peon, R. and H. Ruellan, "HPACK: Header Compression for
HTTP/2", RFC 7541, DOI 10.17487/RFC7541, May 2015, HTTP/2", RFC 7541, DOI 10.17487/RFC7541, May 2015,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7541>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7541>.
[RFC7838] Nottingham, M., McManus, P., and J. Reschke, "HTTP [RFC7838] Nottingham, M., McManus, P., and J. Reschke, "HTTP
Alternative Services", RFC 7838, DOI 10.17487/RFC7838, Alternative Services", RFC 7838, DOI 10.17487/RFC7838,
April 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7838>. April 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7838>.
10.2. Informative References 11.2. Informative References
[RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an [RFC5226] Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", RFC 5226, IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", RFC 5226,
DOI 10.17487/RFC5226, May 2008, DOI 10.17487/RFC5226, May 2008,
<https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5226>. <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5226>.
[RFC7301] Friedl, S., Popov, A., Langley, A., and E. Stephan, [RFC7301] Friedl, S., Popov, A., Langley, A., and E. Stephan,
"Transport Layer Security (TLS) Application-Layer Protocol "Transport Layer Security (TLS) Application-Layer Protocol
Negotiation Extension", RFC 7301, DOI 10.17487/RFC7301, Negotiation Extension", RFC 7301, DOI 10.17487/RFC7301,
July 2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7301>. July 2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7301>.
10.3. URIs 11.3. URIs
[1] https://mailarchive.ietf.org/arch/search/?email_list=quic [1] https://mailarchive.ietf.org/arch/search/?email_list=quic
[2] https://github.com/quicwg [2] https://github.com/quicwg
[3] https://github.com/quicwg/base-drafts/labels/http [3] https://github.com/quicwg/base-drafts/labels/http
Appendix A. Contributors Appendix A. Contributors
The original authors of this specification were Robbie Shade and Mike The original authors of this specification were Robbie Shade and Mike
Warres. Warres.
Appendix B. Change Log Appendix B. Change Log
*RFC Editor's Note:* Please remove this section prior to *RFC Editor's Note:* Please remove this section prior to
publication of a final version of this document. publication of a final version of this document.
B.1. Since draft-ietf-quic-http-04 B.1. Since draft-ietf-quic-http-05
o Made push ID sequential, add MAX_PUSH_ID, remove
SETTINGS_ENABLE_PUSH (#709)
B.2. Since draft-ietf-quic-http-04
o Cite RFC 5234 (#404) o Cite RFC 5234 (#404)
o Return to a single stream per request (#245,#557) o Return to a single stream per request (#245,#557)
o Use separate frame type and settings registries from HTTP/2 (#81) o Use separate frame type and settings registries from HTTP/2 (#81)
o SETTINGS_ENABLE_PUSH instead of SETTINGS_DISABLE_PUSH (#477) o SETTINGS_ENABLE_PUSH instead of SETTINGS_DISABLE_PUSH (#477)
o Restored GOAWAY (#696) o Restored GOAWAY (#696)
o Identify server push using Push ID rather than a stream ID o Identify server push using Push ID rather than a stream ID
(#702,#281) (#702,#281)
o DATA frames cannot be empty (#700) o DATA frames cannot be empty (#700)
B.2. Since draft-ietf-quic-http-03 B.3. Since draft-ietf-quic-http-03
None. None.
B.3. Since draft-ietf-quic-http-02 B.4. Since draft-ietf-quic-http-02
o Track changes in transport draft o Track changes in transport draft
B.4. Since draft-ietf-quic-http-01 B.5. Since draft-ietf-quic-http-01
o SETTINGS changes (#181): o SETTINGS changes (#181):
* SETTINGS can be sent only once at the start of a connection; no * SETTINGS can be sent only once at the start of a connection; no
changes thereafter changes thereafter
* SETTINGS_ACK removed * SETTINGS_ACK removed
* Settings can only occur in the SETTINGS frame a single time * Settings can only occur in the SETTINGS frame a single time
* Boolean format updated * Boolean format updated
o Alt-Svc parameter changed from "v" to "quic"; format updated o Alt-Svc parameter changed from "v" to "quic"; format updated
(#229) (#229)
o Closing the connection control stream or any message control o Closing the connection control stream or any message control
stream is a fatal error (#176) stream is a fatal error (#176)
skipping to change at page 32, line 39 skipping to change at page 34, line 21
o Closing the connection control stream or any message control o Closing the connection control stream or any message control
stream is a fatal error (#176) stream is a fatal error (#176)
o HPACK Sequence counter can wrap (#173) o HPACK Sequence counter can wrap (#173)
o 0-RTT guidance added o 0-RTT guidance added
o Guide to differences from HTTP/2 and porting HTTP/2 extensions o Guide to differences from HTTP/2 and porting HTTP/2 extensions
added (#127,#242) added (#127,#242)
B.5. Since draft-ietf-quic-http-00 B.6. Since draft-ietf-quic-http-00
o Changed "HTTP/2-over-QUIC" to "HTTP/QUIC" throughout (#11,#29) o Changed "HTTP/2-over-QUIC" to "HTTP/QUIC" throughout (#11,#29)
o Changed from using HTTP/2 framing within Stream 3 to new framing o Changed from using HTTP/2 framing within Stream 3 to new framing
format and two-stream-per-request model (#71,#72,#73) format and two-stream-per-request model (#71,#72,#73)
o Adopted SETTINGS format from draft-bishop-httpbis-extended- o Adopted SETTINGS format from draft-bishop-httpbis-extended-
settings-01 settings-01
o Reworked SETTINGS_ACK to account for indeterminate inter-stream o Reworked SETTINGS_ACK to account for indeterminate inter-stream
skipping to change at page 33, line 4 skipping to change at page 34, line 35
o Changed from using HTTP/2 framing within Stream 3 to new framing o Changed from using HTTP/2 framing within Stream 3 to new framing
format and two-stream-per-request model (#71,#72,#73) format and two-stream-per-request model (#71,#72,#73)
o Adopted SETTINGS format from draft-bishop-httpbis-extended- o Adopted SETTINGS format from draft-bishop-httpbis-extended-
settings-01 settings-01
o Reworked SETTINGS_ACK to account for indeterminate inter-stream o Reworked SETTINGS_ACK to account for indeterminate inter-stream
order (#75) order (#75)
o Described CONNECT pseudo-method (#95) o Described CONNECT pseudo-method (#95)
o Updated ALPN token and Alt-Svc guidance (#13,#87) o Updated ALPN token and Alt-Svc guidance (#13,#87)
o Application-layer-defined error codes (#19,#74) o Application-layer-defined error codes (#19,#74)
B.6. Since draft-shade-quic-http2-mapping-00 B.7. Since draft-shade-quic-http2-mapping-00
o Adopted as base for draft-ietf-quic-http o Adopted as base for draft-ietf-quic-http
o Updated authors/editors list o Updated authors/editors list
Author's Address Author's Address
Mike Bishop (editor) Mike Bishop (editor)
Microsoft Microsoft
 End of changes. 83 change blocks. 
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