Network Working GroupC. Daboo
Internet-DraftApple, Inc.
Intended status: Standards TrackA. Quillaud
Expires: August 2, 2012Oracle
January 30, 2012

Collection Synchronization for WebDAV

draft-daboo-webdav-sync-08

Abstract

This specification defines an extension to Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV) that allows efficient synchronization of the contents of a WebDAV collection.

Status of This Memo

This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as “work in progress”.

This Internet-Draft will expire on August 2, 2012.

Copyright Notice

Copyright © 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved.

This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.

This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF Contributions published or made publicly available before November 10, 2008. The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process. Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other than English.

Editorial Note (To be removed by RFC Editor before publication)

Please send comments to the Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV) working group at <mailto:w3c-dist-auth@w3.org>, which may be joined by sending a message with subject "subscribe" to <mailto:w3c-dist-auth-request@w3.org>. Discussions of the WEBDAV working group are archived at <http://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/w3c-dist-auth/>.


1. Introduction

WebDAV [RFC4918] defines the concept of 'collections' which are hierarchical groupings of WebDAV resources on an HTTP [RFC2616] server. Collections can be of arbitrary size and depth (i.e., collections within collections). WebDAV clients that cache resource content need a way to synchronize that data with the server (i.e., detect what has changed and update their cache). This can currently be done using a WebDAV PROPFIND request on a collection to list all members of a collection along with their DAV:getetag property values, which allows the client to determine which were changed, added or deleted. However, this does not scale well to large collections as the XML response to the PROPFIND request will grow with the collection size.

This specification defines a new WebDAV report that results in the server returning to the client only information about those member URLs that were added or deleted, or whose mapped resources were changed, since a previous execution of the report on the collection.

Additionally, a new property is added to collection resources that is used to convey a "synchronization token" that is guaranteed to change when the collection's member URLs or their mapped resources have changed.

2. Conventions Used in This Document

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

This document uses XML DTD fragments ([W3C.REC-xml-20081126], Section 3.2) as a purely notational convention. WebDAV request and response bodies cannot be validated by a DTD due to the specific extensibility rules defined in Section 17 of [RFC4918] and due to the fact that all XML elements defined by this specification use the XML namespace name "DAV:". In particular:

  1. element names use the "DAV:" namespace,
  2. element ordering is irrelevant unless explicitly stated,
  3. extension elements (elements not already defined as valid child elements) may be added anywhere, except when explicitly stated otherwise,
  4. extension attributes (attributes not already defined as valid for this element) may be added anywhere, except when explicitly stated otherwise.

When an XML element type in the "DAV:" namespace is referenced in this document outside of the context of an XML fragment, the string "DAV:" will be prefixed to the element type.

This document inherits, and sometimes extends, DTD productions from Section 14 of [RFC4918].

3. WebDAV Synchronization

3.1. Overview

One way to synchronize data between two entities is to use some form of synchronization token. The token defines the state of the data being synchronized at a particular point in time. It can then be used to determine what has changed between one point in time and another.

This specification defines a new WebDAV report that is used to enable client-server collection synchronization based on such a token.

In order to synchronize the contents of a collection between a server and client, the server provides the client with a synchronization token each time the synchronization report is executed. That token represents the state of the data being synchronized at that point in time. The client can then present that same token back to the server at some later time and the server will return only those items that are new, have changed or were deleted since that token was generated. The server also returns a new token representing the new state at the time the report was run.

Typically, the first time a client connects to the server it will need to be informed of the entire state of the collection (i.e., a full list of all member URLs that are currently in the collection). That is done by the client sending an empty token value to the server. This indicates to the server that a full listing is required.

As an alternative, the client might choose to do its first synchronization using some other mechanism on the collection (e.g. some other form of batch resource information retrieval such as PROPFIND, SEARCH [RFC5323] , or specialized REPORTs such as those defined in CalDAV [RFC4791] and CardDAV [RFC6352]) and ask for the DAV:sync-token property to be returned. This property (defined in Section 4) contains the same token that can be used later on to issue a DAV:sync-collection report.

In some cases a server might only wish to maintain a limited amount of history about changes to a collection. In that situation it will return an error to the client when the client presents a token that is "out of date". At that point the client has to fall back to synchronizing the entire collection by re-running the report request using an empty token value.

Typically, a client will use the synchronization report to retrieve the list of changes, and will follow that with requests to retrieve the content of changed resources. It is possible that additional changes to the collection could occur between the time of the synchronization report and resource content retrieval, which could result in an inconsistent view of the collection. When clients use this method of synchronization, they need to be aware that such additional changes could occur, and track them, e.g., by differences between the ETag values returned in the synchronization report and those returned when actually fetching resource content, by using conditional requests as described in Section 5, or repeating the synchronization process until no changes are returned.

3.2. DAV:sync-collection Report

If the DAV:sync-collection report is implemented by a WebDAV server, then the server MUST list the report in the "DAV:supported-report-set" property on any collection supporting synchronization.

To implement the behavior for this report a server needs to keep track of changes to any member URLs and their mapped resources in a collection (as defined in Section 3 of [RFC4918]). This includes noting the addition of new member URLs, changes to the mapped resources of existing member URLs, and removal of member URLs. The server will track each change and provide a synchronization "token" to the client that describes the state of the server at a specific point in time. This "token" is returned as part of the response to the "sync-collection" report. Clients include the last token they got from the server in the next "sync-collection" report that they execute and the server provides the changes from the previous state, represented by the token, to the current state, represented by the new token returned.

The synchronization token itself MUST be treated as an "opaque" string by the client - i.e., the actual string data has no specific meaning or syntax. However, the token MUST be a valid URI to allow its use in an If pre-condition request header (see Section 5). For example, a simple implementation of such a token could be a numeric counter that counts each change as it occurs and relates that change to the specific object that changed. The numeric value could be appended to a "base" URI to form the valid sync-token.

Marshalling:

  • The request URI MUST identify a collection. The request body MUST be a DAV:sync-collection XML element (see Section 6.1), which MUST contain one DAV:sync-token XML element, one DAV:sync-level element, and one DAV:prop XML element, and MAY contain a DAV:limit XML element.
  • This report is only defined when the Depth header has value "0"; other values result in a 400 (Bad Request) error response. Note that [RFC3253], Section 3.6, states that if the Depth header is not present, it defaults to a value of "0".
  • The response body for a successful request MUST be a DAV:multistatus XML element, which MUST contain one DAV:sync-token element in addition to one DAV:response element for each member URL that was added, has had its mapped resource changed, or was deleted since the last synchronization operation as specified by the DAV:sync-token provided in the request. A given member URL MUST appear only once in the response. In the case where multiple member URLs of the request-URI are mapped to the same resource, if the resource is changed, each member URL MUST be returned in the response.
  • The content of each DAV:response element differs depending on how the member was altered:
    • For members that have changed (i.e., are new or have had their mapped resource modified) the DAV:response MUST contain at least one DAV:propstat element and MUST NOT contain any DAV:status element.
    • For members that have been removed, the DAV:response MUST contain one DAV:status with a value set to '404 Not Found' and MUST NOT contain any DAV:propstat element.
    • For members that are collections and are unable to support the DAV:sync-collection report, the DAV:response MUST contain one DAV:status with a value set to '403 Forbidden', a DAV:error containing DAV:supported-report or DAV:sync-traversal-supported (see Section 3.3 for which is appropriate), and MUST NOT contain any DAV:propstat element.
  • The conditions under which each type of change can occur is further described in Section 3.5.

Preconditions:

  • (DAV:valid-sync-token): The DAV:sync-token element value MUST be a valid token previously returned by the server for the collection targeted by the request-URI. Servers might need to invalidate tokens previously returned to clients. Doing so will cause the clients to fall back to doing full synchronization using the report, though that will not require clients to download resources that are already cached and have not changed. Even so, servers MUST limit themselves to invalidating tokens only when absolutely necessary. Specific reasons include:
    • Servers might be unable to maintain all of the change data for a collection due to storage or performance reasons. e.g., servers might only be able to maintain up to 3 weeks worth of changes to a collection, or only up to 10,000 total changes, or not wish to maintain changes for a deleted collection.
    • Change to server implementation: servers might be upgraded to a new implementation that tracks the history in a different manner and thus previous synchronization history is no longer valid.

Postconditions:

  • (DAV:number-of-matches-within-limits): The number of changes reported in the response must fall within the client specified limit. This condition might be triggered if a client requests a limit on the number of responses (as per Section 3.7) but the server is unable to truncate the result set at or below that limit.

3.3. Depth behavior

Servers MUST support only Depth:0 behavior with the DAV:sync-collection report. i.e., the report targets only the collection being synchronized in a single request. However, clients do need to "scope" the synchronization to different levels within that collection, specifically immediate children (level "1") and all children at any depth (level "infinite"). To specify which level to use, clients MUST include a DAV:sync-level XML element in the request.

  • When the client specifies the DAV:sync-level XML element with a value of "1", only appropriate internal member URLs (immediate children) of the collection specified as the request URI are reported.
  • When the client specifies the DAV:sync-level XML element with a value of "infinite", all appropriate member URLs of the collection specified as the request URI are reported, provided child collections themselves also support the DAV:sync-collection report.
  • DAV:sync-token values returned by the server are not specific to the value of the DAV:sync-level XML element used in the request. As such clients MAY use a DAV:sync-token value from a request with one DAV:sync-level XML element value for a similar request with a different DAV:sync-level XML element value, however the utility of this is limited.

Note that when a server supports DAV:sync-level XML element with a value of "infinite", it might not be possible to synchronize some child collections within the collection targeted by the report. When this occurs, the server MUST include a DAV:response element for the child collection with status 403 (Forbidden). The 403 response MUST be sent once, when the collection is first reported to the client. In addition, the server MUST include a DAV:error element in the DAV:response element, indicating one of two possible causes for this:

  • The DAV:sync-collection report is not supported at all on the child collection. The DAV:error element MUST contain the DAV:supported-report element.
  • The server is unwilling to report results for the child collection when a DAV:sync-collection report with the DAV:sync-level XML element set to "infinite" is executed on a parent resource. This might happen when, for example, the synchronization state of the collection resource is controlled by another sub-system. In such cases clients can perform the DAV:sync-collection report directly on the child collection instead. The DAV:error element MUST contain the DAV:sync-traversal-supported element.

3.4. Types of Changes Reported on Initial Synchronization

When the DAV:sync-collection request contains an empty DAV:sync-token element, the server MUST return all member URLs of the collection (taking account of the DAV:sync-level XML element value as per Section 3.3, and optional truncation of results set as per Section 3.6) and it MUST NOT return any removed member URLs. All types of member (collection or non-collection) MUST be reported.

3.5. Types of Changes Reported on Subsequent Synchronizations

When the DAV:sync-collection request contains a valid value for the DAV:sync-token element, two types of member URL state changes can be returned (changed or removed). This section defines what triggers each of these to be returned. It also clarifies the case where a member URL might have undergone multiple changes between two synchronization report requests. In all cases, the DAV:sync-level XML element value as per Section 3.3, and optional truncation of results set as per Section 3.6, are taken into account by the server.

3.5.1. Changed Member

A member URL MUST be reported as changed if it has been newly mapped as a member of the target collection since the request sync-token was generated (e.g., when a new resource has been created as a child of the collection). For example, this includes member URLs that have been newly mapped as the result of a COPY, MOVE, BIND [RFC5842], or REBIND [RFC5842] request. All types of member URL (collection or non-collection) MUST be reported.

In the case where a mapping between a member URL and the target collection was removed, then a new mapping with the same URI created, the member URL MUST be reported as changed and MUST NOT be reported as removed.

A member URL MUST be reported as changed if its mapped resource's entity tag value (defined in Section 3.11 of [RFC2616]) has changed since the request sync-token was generated.

A member URL MAY be reported as changed if the user issuing the request was granted access to this member URL, due to access control changes.

Collection member URLs MUST be returned as changed if they are mapped to an underlying resource (i.e., entity body) and if the entity tag associated with that resource changes. There is no guarantee that changes to members of a collection will result in a change in any entity tag of that collection, so clients cannot rely on a series of reports using the DAV:sync-level XML element value set to "1" at multiple levels to track all changes within a collection. Instead DAV:sync-level XML element with a value of "infinite" has to be used.

3.5.2. Removed Member

A member MUST be reported as removed if its mapping under the target collection has been removed since the request sync-token was generated, and it has not been re-mapped since it was removed. For example, this includes members that have been unmapped as the result of a MOVE, UNBIND [RFC5842], or REBIND [RFC5842] operation. This also includes collection members that have been removed, including ones that themselves do not support the DAV:sync-collection report.

If a member was added (and its mapped resource possibly modified), then removed between two synchronization report requests, it MUST be reported as removed. This ensures that a client that adds a member is informed of the removal of the member, if the removal occurs before the client has had a chance to execute a synchronization report.

A member MAY be reported as removed if the user issuing the request no longer has access to this member, due to access control changes.

For a report with the DAV:sync-level XML element value set to "infinite", where a collection is removed, the server MUST NOT report the removal of any members of the removed collection. Clients MUST assume that if a collection is reported as being removed, then all members of that collection have also been removed.

3.6. Truncation of Results

A server MAY limit the number of member URLs in a response, for example, to limit the amount of work expended in processing a request, or as the result of an explicit limit set by the client. If the result set is truncated, the response MUST use status code 207, return a DAV:multistatus response body, and indicate a status of 507 (Insufficient Storage) for the request URI. That DAV:response element SHOULD include a DAV:error element with the DAV:number-of-matches-within-limits precondition, as defined in [RFC3744] (Section 9.2). DAV:response elements for all the changes being reported are also included.

When truncation occurs, the DAV:sync-token value returned in the response MUST represent the correct state for the partial set of changes returned. That allows the client to use the returned DAV:sync-token to fetch the next set of changes. In this way the client can effectively "page" through the entire set of changes in a consistent manner.

Clients MUST handle the 507 status on the request-URI in the response to the report.

For example, consider a server that records changes using a strictly increasing integer to represent a "revision number" and uses that quantity as the DAV:sync-token value (appropriately encoded as a URI). Assume the last DAV:sync-token used by the client was "http://example.com/sync/10", and since then 15 additional changes to different resources have occurred. If the client executes a DAV:sync-collection request with a DAV:sync-token of "http://example.com/sync/10", without a limit the server would return 15 DAV:response elements and a DAV:sync-token with value "http://example.com/sync/25". But if the server choose to limit responses to at most 10 changes, then it would return only 10 DAV:response elements and a DAV:sync-token with value "http://example.com/sync/20", together with an additional DAV:response element for the request-URI with a status code of 507. Subsequently, the client can re-issue the request with the DAV:sync-token value returned from the server and fetch the remaining 5 changes.

3.7. Limiting Results

A client can limit the number of results returned by the server through use of the DAV:limit element ([RFC5323], Section 5.17) in the request body. This is useful when clients have limited space or bandwidth for the results. If a server is unable to truncate the result at or below the requested number, then it MUST fail the request with a DAV:number-of-matches-within-limits post-condition error. When the results can be correctly limited by the server, the server MUST follow the rules above for indicating a result set truncation to the client.

3.8. Example: Initial DAV:sync-collection Report

In this example, the client is making its first synchronization request to the server, so the DAV:sync-token element in the request is empty. It also asks for the DAV:getetag property and for a proprietary property. The server responds with the items currently in the targeted collection. The current synchronization token is also returned.

>> Request <<


REPORT /home/cyrusdaboo/ HTTP/1.1
Host: webdav.example.com
Depth: 0
Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
Content-Length: xxxx

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<D:sync-collection xmlns:D="DAV:">
  <D:sync-token/>
  <D:sync-level>1</D:sync-level>
  <D:prop xmlns:R="urn:ns.example.com:boxschema">
    <D:getetag/>
    <R:bigbox/>
  </D:prop>
</D:sync-collection>

          

>> Response <<


HTTP/1.1 207 Multi-Status
Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
Content-Length: xxxx

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<D:multistatus xmlns:D="DAV:">
  <D:response>
    <D:href
>http://webdav.example.com/home/cyrusdaboo/test.doc</D:href>
    <D:propstat>
      <D:prop>
        <D:getetag>"00001-abcd1"</D:getetag>
        <R:bigbox xmlns:R="urn:ns.example.com:boxschema">
          <R:BoxType>Box type A</R:BoxType>
        </R:bigbox>
      </D:prop>
      <D:status>HTTP/1.1 200 OK</D:status>
    </D:propstat>
  </D:response>
  <D:response>
    <D:href
>http://webdav.example.com/home/cyrusdaboo/vcard.vcf</D:href>
    <D:propstat>
      <D:prop>
        <D:getetag>"00002-abcd1"</D:getetag>
      </D:prop>
      <D:status>HTTP/1.1 200 OK</D:status>
    </D:propstat>
    <D:propstat>
      <D:prop>
        <R:bigbox xmlns:R="urn:ns.example.com:boxschema"/>
      </D:prop>
      <D:status>HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found</D:status>
    </D:propstat>
  </D:response>
  <D:response>
    <D:href
>http://webdav.example.com/home/cyrusdaboo/calendar.ics</D:href>
    <D:propstat>
      <D:prop>
        <D:getetag>"00003-abcd1"</D:getetag>
      </D:prop>
      <D:status>HTTP/1.1 200 OK</D:status>
    </D:propstat>
    <D:propstat>
      <D:prop>
        <R:bigbox xmlns:R="urn:ns.example.com:boxschema"/>
      </D:prop>
      <D:status>HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found</D:status>
    </D:propstat>
  </D:response>
  <D:sync-token>http://example.com/ns/sync/1234</D:sync-token>
</D:multistatus>

          

3.9. Example: DAV:sync-collection Report with Token

In this example, the client is making a synchronization request to the server and is using the DAV:sync-token element returned from the last report it ran on this collection. The server responds, listing the items that have been added, changed or removed. The (new) current synchronization token is also returned.

>> Request <<


REPORT /home/cyrusdaboo/ HTTP/1.1
Host: webdav.example.com
Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
Content-Length: xxxx

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<D:sync-collection xmlns:D="DAV:">
  <D:sync-token>http://example.com/ns/sync/1234</D:sync-token>
  <D:sync-level>1</D:sync-level>
  <D:prop xmlns:R="urn:ns.example.com:boxschema">
    <D:getetag/>
    <R:bigbox/>
  </D:prop>
</D:sync-collection>

          

>> Response <<


HTTP/1.1 207 Multi-Status
Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
Content-Length: xxxx

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<D:multistatus xmlns:D="DAV:">
  <D:response>
    <D:href
>http://webdav.example.com/home/cyrusdaboo/file.xml</D:href>
    <D:propstat>
      <D:prop>
        <D:getetag>"00004-abcd1"</D:getetag>
      </D:prop>
      <D:status>HTTP/1.1 200 OK</D:status>
    </D:propstat>
    <D:propstat>
      <D:prop>
        <R:bigbox xmlns:R="urn:ns.example.com:boxschema"/>
      </D:prop>
      <D:status>HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found</D:status>
    </D:propstat>
  </D:response>
  <D:response>
    <D:href
>http://webdav.example.com/home/cyrusdaboo/vcard.vcf</D:href>
    <D:propstat>
      <D:prop>
        <D:getetag>"00002-abcd2"</D:getetag>
      </D:prop>
      <D:status>HTTP/1.1 200 OK</D:status>
    </D:propstat>
    <D:propstat>
      <D:prop>
        <R:bigbox xmlns:R="urn:ns.example.com:boxschema"/>
      </D:prop>
      <D:status>HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found</D:status>
    </D:propstat>
  </D:response>
  <D:response>
    <D:href
>http://webdav.example.com/home/cyrusdaboo/test.doc</D:href>
    <D:status>HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found</D:status>
  </D:response>
  <D:sync-token>http://example.com/ns/sync/1238</D:sync-token>
</D:multistatus>

          

3.10. Example: Initial DAV:sync-collection Report with Truncation

In this example, the client is making its first synchronization request to the server, so the DAV:sync-token element in the request is empty. It also asks for the DAV:getetag property. The server responds with the items currently in the targeted collection, but truncated at two items. The synchronization token for the truncated result set is returned.

>> Request <<


REPORT /home/cyrusdaboo/ HTTP/1.1
Host: webdav.example.com
Depth: 0
Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
Content-Length: xxxx

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<D:sync-collection xmlns:D="DAV:">
  <D:sync-token/>
  <D:sync-level>1</D:sync-level>
  <D:prop>
    <D:getetag/>
  </D:prop>
</D:sync-collection>

          

>> Response <<


HTTP/1.1 207 Multi-Status
Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
Content-Length: xxxx

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<D:multistatus xmlns:D="DAV:">
  <D:response>
    <D:href
>http://webdav.example.com/home/cyrusdaboo/test.doc</D:href>
    <D:propstat>
      <D:prop>
        <D:getetag>"00001-abcd1"</D:getetag>
      </D:prop>
      <D:status>HTTP/1.1 200 OK</D:status>
    </D:propstat>
  </D:response>
  <D:response>
    <D:href
>http://webdav.example.com/home/cyrusdaboo/vcard.vcf</D:href>
    <D:propstat>
      <D:prop>
        <D:getetag>"00002-abcd1"</D:getetag>
      </D:prop>
      <D:status>HTTP/1.1 200 OK</D:status>
    </D:propstat>
  </D:response>
  <D:response>
    <D:href
>http://webdav.example.com/home/cyrusdaboo/</D:href>
    <D:status>HTTP/1.1 507 Insufficient Storage</D:status>
    <D:error><D:number-of-matches-within-limits/></D:error>
  </D:response>
  <D:sync-token>http://example.com/ns/sync/1233</D:sync-token>
</D:multistatus>

          

3.11. Example: Initial DAV:sync-collection Report with Limit

In this example, the client is making its first synchronization request to the server, so the DAV:sync-token element in the request is empty. It requests a limit of 1 for the responses returned by the server. It also asks for the DAV:getetag property. The server responds with the items currently in the targeted collection, but truncated at one item. The synchronization token for the truncated result set is returned.

>> Request <<


REPORT /home/cyrusdaboo/ HTTP/1.1
Host: webdav.example.com
Depth: 0
Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
Content-Length: xxxx

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<D:sync-collection xmlns:D="DAV:">
  <D:sync-token/>
  <D:sync-level>1</D:sync-level>
  <D:limit>
    <D:nresults>1</D:nresults>
  </D:limit>
  <D:prop>
    <D:getetag/>
  </D:prop>
</D:sync-collection>

          

>> Response <<


HTTP/1.1 207 Multi-Status
Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
Content-Length: xxxx

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<D:multistatus xmlns:D="DAV:">
  <D:response>
    <D:href
>http://webdav.example.com/home/cyrusdaboo/test.doc</D:href>
    <D:propstat>
      <D:prop>
        <D:getetag>"00001-abcd1"</D:getetag>
      </D:prop>
      <D:status>HTTP/1.1 200 OK</D:status>
    </D:propstat>
  </D:response>
  <D:response>
    <D:href
>http://webdav.example.com/home/cyrusdaboo/</D:href>
    <D:status>HTTP/1.1 507 Insufficient Storage</D:status>
    <D:error><D:number-of-matches-within-limits/></D:error>
  </D:response>
  <D:sync-token>http://example.com/ns/sync/1232</D:sync-token>
</D:multistatus>

          

3.12. Example: DAV:sync-collection Report with Unsupported Limit

In this example, the client is making a synchronization request to the server with a valid DAV:sync-token element value. It requests a limit of 100 for the responses returned by the server. It also asks for the DAV:getetag property. The server is unable to limit the results to the maximum specified by the client, so it responds with a 507 status code and appropriate post-condition error code.

>> Request <<


REPORT /home/cyrusdaboo/ HTTP/1.1
Host: webdav.example.com
Depth: 0
Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
Content-Length: xxxx

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<D:sync-collection xmlns:D="DAV:">
  <D:sync-token>http://example.com/ns/sync/1232</D:sync-token>
  <D:sync-level>1</D:sync-level>
  <D:limit>
    <D:nresults>100</D:nresults>
  </D:limit>
  <D:prop>
    <D:getetag/>
  </D:prop>
</D:sync-collection>

          

>> Response <<


HTTP/1.1 507 Insufficient Storage
Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
Content-Length: xxxx

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<D:error xmlns:D="DAV:">
  <D:number-of-matches-within-limits/>
</D:error>

          

3.13. Example: DAV:sync-level set to infinite, initial DAV:sync-collection Report

In this example, the client is making its first synchronization request to the server, so the DAV:sync-token element in the request is empty, and it is using DAV:sync-level set to "infinite". It also asks for the DAV:getetag property and for a proprietary property. The server responds with the items currently in the targeted collection. The current synchronization token is also returned.

The collection /home/cyrusdaboo/collection1/ exists and has one child resource which is also reported. The collection /home/cyrusdaboo/collection2/ exists but has no child resources. The collection /home/cyrusdaboo/shared/ is returned with a 403 status indicating that a collection exists but it is unable to report on changes within it in the scope of the current DAV:sync-level "infinite" report. Instead the client can try a DAV:sync-collection report directly on the collection URI.

>> Request <<


REPORT /home/cyrusdaboo/ HTTP/1.1
Host: webdav.example.com
Depth: 0
Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
Content-Length: xxxx

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<D:sync-collection xmlns:D="DAV:">
  <D:sync-token/>
  <D:sync-level>infinite</D:sync-level>
  <D:prop xmlns:R="urn:ns.example.com:boxschema">
    <D:getetag/>
    <R:bigbox/>
  </D:prop>
</D:sync-collection>

          

>> Response <<


HTTP/1.1 207 Multi-Status
Content-Type: text/xml; charset="utf-8"
Content-Length: xxxx

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<D:multistatus xmlns:D="DAV:">
  <D:response>
    <D:href>/home/cyrusdaboo/collection1/</D:href>
    <D:propstat>
      <D:prop>
        <D:getetag>"00001-abcd1"</D:getetag>
        <R:bigbox xmlns:R="urn:ns.example.com:boxschema">
          <R:BoxType>Box type A</R:BoxType>
        </R:bigbox>
      </D:prop>
      <D:status>HTTP/1.1 200 OK</D:status>
    </D:propstat>
  </D:response>
  <D:response>
    <D:href>/home/cyrusdaboo/collection1/test.doc</D:href>
    <D:propstat>
      <D:prop>
        <D:getetag>"00001-abcd1"</D:getetag>
        <R:bigbox xmlns:R="urn:ns.example.com:boxschema">
          <R:BoxType>Box type A</R:BoxType>
        </R:bigbox>
      </D:prop>
      <D:status>HTTP/1.1 200 OK</D:status>
    </D:propstat>
  </D:response>
  <D:response>
    <D:href>/home/cyrusdaboo/collection2/</D:href>
    <D:propstat>
      <D:prop>
        <D:getetag/>
      </D:prop>
      <D:status>HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found</D:status>
    </D:propstat>
    <D:propstat>
      <D:prop>
        <R:bigbox xmlns:R="urn:ns.example.com:boxschema"/>
      </D:prop>
      <D:status>HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found</D:status>
    </D:propstat>
  </D:response>
  <D:response>
    <D:href>/home/cyrusdaboo/calendar.ics</D:href>
    <D:propstat>
      <D:prop>
        <D:getetag>"00003-abcd1"</D:getetag>
      </D:prop>
      <D:status>HTTP/1.1 200 OK</D:status>
    </D:propstat>
    <D:propstat>
      <D:prop>
        <R:bigbox xmlns:R="urn:ns.example.com:boxschema"/>
      </D:prop>
      <D:status>HTTP/1.1 404 Not Found</D:status>
    </D:propstat>
  </D:response>
  <D:response>
    <D:href>/home/cyrusdaboo/shared/</D:href>
    <D:status>HTTP/1.1 403 Forbidden</D:status>
    <D:error><D:sync-traversal-supported/></D:error>
  </D:response>
  <D:sync-token>http://example.com/ns/sync/1234</D:sync-token>
</D:multistatus>

          

4. DAV:sync-token Property

Name:
sync-token
Namespace:
DAV:
Purpose:
Contains the value of the synchronization token as it would be returned by a DAV:sync-collection report.
Value:
Any valid URI.
Protected:
MUST be protected because this value is created and controlled by the server.
COPY/MOVE behavior:
This property value is dependent on the final state of the destination resource, not the value of the property on the source resource.
Description:
The DAV:sync-token property MUST be defined on all resources that support the DAV:sync-collection report. It contains the value of the synchronization token as it would be returned by a DAV:sync-collection report on that resource at the same point in time. It SHOULD NOT be returned by a PROPFIND DAV:allprop request (as defined in Section 14.2 of [RFC4918]).
Definition:

<!ELEMENT sync-token #PCDATA>

<!-- Text MUST be a valid URI -->

                        

5. DAV:sync-token Use with If Header

WebDAV provides an If pre-condition header that allows for "state tokens" to be used as pre-conditions on HTTP requests (as defined in Section 10.4 of [RFC4918]). This specification allows the DAV:sync-token value to be used as one such token in an If header. By using this, clients can ensure requests only complete when there have been no changes to the content of a collection, by virtue of an un-changed DAV:sync-token value. Servers MUST support use of DAV:sync-token values in If request headers.

5.1. Example: If Pre-Condition with PUT

In this example, the client has already used the DAV:sync-collection report to synchronize the collection /home/cyrusdaboo/collection/. Now it wants to add a new resource to the collection, but only if there have been no other changes since the last synchronization. Note, that because the DAV:sync-token is defined on the collection and not on the resource targeted by the request, the If header value needs to use the "Resource_Tag" construct for the header syntax to correctly identify that the supplied state token refers to the collection resource.

>> Request <<


PUT /home/cyrusdaboo/collection/newresource.txt HTTP/1.1
Host: webdav.example.com
If: </home/cyrusdaboo/collection/>
  (<http://example.com/ns/sync/12345>)
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="utf-8"
Content-Length: xxxx

Some content here...

          

>> Response <<


HTTP/1.1 201 Created

          

5.2. Example: If Pre-Condition with MKCOL

In this example, the client has already used the DAV:sync-collection report to synchronize the collection /home/cyrusdaboo/collection/. Now it wants to add a new collection to the collection, but only if there have been no other changes since the last synchronization. Note, that because the DAV:sync-token is defined on the collection and not on the resource targeted by the request, the If header value needs to use the "Resource_Tag" construct for the header syntax to correctly identify that the supplied state token refers to the collection resource. In this case the request fails as another change has occurred to the collection corresponding to the supplied DAV:sync-token.

>> Request <<


MKCOL /home/cyrusdaboo/collection/child/ HTTP/1.1
Host: webdav.example.com
If: </home/cyrusdaboo/collection/>
  (<http://example.com/ns/sync/12346>)

          

>> Response <<


HTTP/1.1 412 Pre-condition Failed

          

6. XML Element Definitions

6.1. DAV:sync-collection XML Element

Name:
sync-collection
Namespace:
DAV:
Purpose:
WebDAV report used to synchronize data between client and server.
Description:
See Section 3.

<!ELEMENT sync-collection (sync-token, sync-level, limit?, prop)>

<!-- DAV:limit defined in RFC 5323, Section 5.17 -->
<!-- DAV:prop defined in RFC 4918, Section 14.18 -->

          

6.2. DAV:sync-token XML Element

Name:
sync-token
Namespace:
DAV:
Purpose:
The synchronization token provided by the server and returned by the client.
Description:
See Section 3.

<!ELEMENT sync-token CDATA>

<!-- Text MUST be a URI -->

            

6.3. DAV:sync-level XML Element

Name:
sync-level
Namespace:
DAV:
Purpose:
Indicates the "scope" of the synchronization report request.
Description:
See Section 3.3.

<!ELEMENT sync-level CDATA>

<!-- Text MUST be either "1" or "infinite" -->

            

6.4. DAV:multistatus XML Element

Name:
multistatus
Namespace:
DAV:
Purpose:
Extends the DAV:multistatus element to include synchronization details.
Description:
See Section 3.

<!ELEMENT multistatus (response*, responsedescription?,
                       sync-token?) >

<!-- DAV:multistatus originally defined in RFC 4918, Section 14.16
     but overridden here to add the DAV:sync-token element -->
<!-- DAV:response defined in RFC 4918, Section 14.24 -->
<!-- DAV:responsedescription defined in RFC 4918, Section 14.25 -->

            

7. Security Considerations

This extension does not introduce any new security concerns than those already described in HTTP and WebDAV.

8. IANA Considerations

This document does not require any actions on the part of IANA.

9. Acknowledgments

The following individuals contributed their ideas and support for writing this specification: Bernard Desruisseaux, Werner Donne, Mike Douglass, Ciny Joy, Andrew McMillan, Julian Reschke, and Wilfredo Sanchez. We would like to thank the Calendaring and Scheduling Consortium for facilitating interoperability testing for early implementations of this specification.

10. References

10.1. Normative References

[RFC2119]
Bradner, S., “Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels”, BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.
[RFC2616]
Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H., Masinter, L., Leach, P., and T. Berners-Lee, “Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1”, RFC 2616, June 1999.
[RFC3253]
Clemm, G., Amsden, J., Ellison, T., Kaler, C., and J. Whitehead, “Versioning Extensions to WebDAV (Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning)”, RFC 3253, March 2002.
[RFC3744]
Clemm, G., Reschke, J., Sedlar, E., and J. Whitehead, “Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV) Access Control Protocol”, RFC 3744, May 2004.
[RFC4918]
Dusseault, L., “HTTP Extensions for Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV)”, RFC 4918, June 2007.
[RFC5323]
Reschke, J., Reddy, S., Davis, J., and A. Babich, “Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV) SEARCH”, RFC 5323, November 2008.
[W3C.REC-xml-20081126]
Yergeau, F., Paoli, J., Sperberg-McQueen, C., Bray, T., and E. Maler, “Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition)”, World Wide Web Consortium Recommendation REC-xml-20081126, November 2008, <http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-xml-20081126>.

10.2. Informative References

[RFC4791]
Daboo, C., Desruisseaux, B., and L. Dusseault, “Calendaring Extensions to WebDAV (CalDAV)”, RFC 4791, March 2007.
[RFC5842]
Clemm, G., Crawford, J., Reschke, J., and J. Whitehead, “Binding Extensions to Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV)”, RFC 5842, April 2010.
[RFC6352]
Daboo, C., “CardDAV: vCard Extensions to Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV)”, RFC 6352, August 2011.

A. Backwards Compatible Handling of Depth

In prior draft versions of this specification the Depth request header was used instead of the DAV:sync-level element to indicate the "scope" of the synchronization request. Servers that wish to be backwards compatible with clients conforming to the older specification should do the following: if a DAV:sync-level element is not present in the request body, use the Depth header value as the equivalent value for the missing DAV:sync-level element.

B. Example of a Client Synchronization Approach

This appendix gives an example of how a client might accomplish collection synchronization using the WebDAV sync report defined in this specification. Note that this is provided purely as an example, and is not meant to be treated as a normative "algorithm" for client synchronization.

This examples assumes a WebDAV client interacting with a WebDAV server supporting the sync report. The client keeps a local cache of resources in a targeted collection, "/collection/". Local changes are assumed to not occur. The client is only tracking changes to the immediate children of the collection resource.

C. Change History (to be removed prior to publication as an RFC)

Changes in -08:

  1. Updated CardDAV reference.
  2. IETF LC: changed valid-sync-token description to use MUST for limiting server invalidation to only necessary cases and simplified the set of allowed cases.
  3. IETF LC: added example of a simple client synchronization strategy.

Changes in -07:

  1. Updated CardDAV reference.
  2. IETF LC: expanded acronym in abstract.
  3. IETF LC: member URI -> member URL.
  4. IETF LC: Clarified limit example to indicate 15 changes are to different resources.
  5. IETF LC: Removed unnecessary DAV: prefix in !ELEMENT DTD fragments.
  6. IETF LC: Changed from using Depth header to DAV:sync-level element.
  7. Apps Review: Clarified that pre-condition applies to request-URI.
  8. GenArt: Clarified that "mapped" implies addition of a resource in first paragraph of 3.5.1.
  9. IESG: Clarified meaning of "opaque" to refer to client treatment of sync-token.
  10. IESG: BIND is now informative again.
  11. IESG: Removed paragraph from Security Considerations that was already covered by WebDAV considerations.
  12. IESG: Created a list of allowed reasons for server sync-token invalidation.

Changes in -06:

  1. Changed the 405 error into a 403 with a DAV:error element.
  2. Stated more clearly that both depth:1 and depth:infinity must be supported.
  3. Tied up sync-token as URI changes.
  4. Made BIND a normative reference.
  5. Take into account REBIND.
  6. Reworked text to more accurately make the distinction between member URIs and resources, which should clarify the interaction with extensions like BIND.

Changes in -05:

  1. Added option to use DAV:sync-token as an If pre-condition state token.
  2. DAV:sync-token value now required to be a URI so it can be used in the If header.

Changes in -04:

  1. Depth:infinity support added.
  2. Collection resources are now reported as changed if they have a valid entity tag associated with them.

Changes in -03:

  1. Changed D:propstat to D:prop in marshalling.
  2. Added request for dead property in examples.
  3. Made D:prop mandatory in request so that D:response always contains at least one D:propstat as per WebDAV definition.
  4. Removed DAV:status from response when resource is created/modified, thus allowing to get rid of DAV:sync-response in favor of a regular DAV:response. As a consequence, there is no longer any difference in the report between created and modified resources.
  5. Resource created, then removed between 2 sync MUST be returned as removed.
  6. Added ability for server to truncate results and indicate such to the client.
  7. Added ability for client to request the server to limit the result set.

Changes in -02:

  1. Added definition of sync-token WebDAV property.
  2. Added references to SEARCH, CalDAV, CardDAV as alternative ways to first synchronize a collection.
  3. Added section defining under which condition each state change (new, modified, removed) should be reported. Added reference to BIND.
  4. Incorporated feedback from Julian Reschke and Ciny Joy.
  5. More details on the use of the DAV:valid-sync-token precondition.

Changes in -01:

  1. Updated to 4918 reference.
  2. Fixed examples to properly include DAV:status in DAV:propstat
  3. Switch to using XML conventions text from RFC5323.

Authors' Addresses

Cyrus Daboo
Apple Inc.
1 Infinite Loop
Cupertino, CA 95014
USA
Email: cyrus@daboo.name
URI: http://www.apple.com/
Arnaud Quillaud
Oracle Corporation
180, Avenue de l'Europe
Saint Ismier cedex, 38334
France
Email: arnaud.quillaud@oracle.com
URI: http://www.oracle.com/